2008 Tour de France

2008 Tour de France
Route of the 2008 Tour de France
Race details
Dates 5–27 July
Stages 21
Distance 3,559 km (2,211 mi)
Winning time 87h 52' 52"
Winner  Carlos Sastre (ESP) (CSC–Saxo Bank)
Second  Cadel Evans (AUS) (Silence–Lotto)
Third  Bernhard Kohl Denis Menchov[1] (RUS) (Rabobank)

Points  Óscar Freire (ESP) (Rabobank)
Mountains  Carlos Sastre[1] (ESP) (CSC–Saxo Bank)
Youth  Andy Schleck (LUX) (CSC–Saxo Bank)
Team CSC–Saxo Bank

The 2008 Tour de France was the 95th running of the race. The event took place from 5 to 27 July. Starting in the French city of Brest, the tour entered Italy on the 15th stage and returned to France during the 16th, heading for Paris, its regular final destination, which was reached in the 21st stage. The race was won by Carlos Sastre.

Unlike previous years, time bonuses were no longer awarded for intermediate sprints and for high placement on each stage. This altered the way the General Classification was awarded in comparison to previous seasons.


For a more comprehensive list, see List of teams and cyclists in the 2008 Tour de France.

Long running disputes between the event organisers, the ASO and the UCI[2] reached a head when the race organisers insisted upon the right to invite, or exclude, whichever teams it chose for the event. Under UCI rules, any ProTour event must be open to all member teams of the UCI's top level. The ASO made it clear that, despite changes in team management and personnel, it intended to exclude Astana from the event as a result its involvement in the doping scandals that marred the 2007 Tour and its links to the 2006 Operación Puerto doping case. This meant that the champion (Alberto Contador) and third-place finisher (Levi Leipheimer) from 2007, both of whom had since signed with Astana, could not compete in the 2008 Tour.[3]

The ASO announced on 20 March 2008 that all ProTour teams except Astana would be invited, along with three wildcard teams: Agritubel, Barloworld, and Slipstream–Chipotle (subsequently renamed as Garmin–Chipotle–H30[4]). With each team consisting of nine riders, 180 riders started the Tour.

The teams entering the race were:[5]

UCI ProTour teams

Invited teams

Pre-race favourites

Because Astana was not invited to the 2008 Tour de France, the winner of the 2007 Tour de France, Alberto Contador, the 3rd-place finisher Levi Leipheimer and the 2004 and 2006 Tour de France runner up Andreas Klöden did not compete. Ten days before the start of the tour, Contador picked Cadel Evans as the likely winner for 2008.[7] Shown in the table below are the riders that, according to the bookmakers[8] in the months before the start of the 2008 Tour de France, had a chance of winning the 2008 Tour better than or equal to 25/1. The odds shown are the odds in July 2008, directly before the start of the race. Thomas Dekker and Michael Rogers were also given odds in this range, but were not included in the Tour de France.

Route and stages

The 2008 Tour de France was almost entirely in France, with only a small part in Italy. In previous years, the Tour started with a prologue, followed by a week of flat stages. The flat stages were dominated by the sprinters' teams, and the yellow jersey was worn by a sprinter who had a good prologue. At the presentation of the Tour de France 2008 schedule, Tour Director Christian Prudhomme announced that the 2008 Tour would be different: "We have wanted a first week of racing with much more rhythm. With no prologue, an uphill finish that will suit different types of sprinters at the end of stage one, with a short time trial on stage four and the first mountain at Super-Besse only 48 hours later, we have decided to change the scenario."[9] The time bonuses at the end of each stage were removed, and there was 82 kilometres (51 mi) of time trials, less than usual.

Stage characteristics and winners[10][11][12]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
1 5 July Brest to Plumelec 197.5 km (122.7 mi) Flat stage  Alejandro Valverde (ESP)
2 6 July Auray to Saint-Brieuc 164.5 km (102.2 mi) Flat stage  Thor Hushovd (NOR)
3 7 July Saint-Malo to Nantes 208.0 km (129.2 mi) Flat stage  Samuel Dumoulin (FRA)
4 8 July Cholet to Cholet 29.5 km (18.3 mi) Individual time trial  Kim Kirchen (LUX)
5 9 July Cholet to Châteauroux 232.0 km (144.2 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
6 10 July Aigurande to Super-Besse Sancy 195.5 km (121.5 mi) Transition stage  Alejandro Valverde (ESP)
7 11 July Brioude to Aurillac 159.0 km (98.8 mi) Transition stage  Luis León Sánchez (ESP)
8 12 July Figeac to Toulouse 172.5 km (107.2 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
9 13 July Toulouse to Bagnères-de-Bigorre 224.0 km (139.2 mi) Mountain stage  Vladimir Efimkin (RUS)
10 14 July Pau to Hautacam 156.0 km (96.9 mi) Mountain stage  Juan José Cobo (ESP)
15 July Pau Rest day
11 16 July Lannemezan to Foix 167.5 km (104.1 mi) Transition stage  Kurt Asle Arvesen (NOR)
12 17 July Lavelanet to Narbonne 168.5 km (104.7 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
13 18 July Narbonne to Nîmes 182.0 km (113.1 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
14 19 July Nîmes to Digne-les-Bains 194.5 km (120.9 mi) Flat stage  Óscar Freire (ESP)
15 20 July Embrun[n 1] to Prato Nevoso (Italy) 183.0 km (113.7 mi) Mountain stage  Simon Gerrans (AUS)
21 July Cuneo (Italy) Rest day
16 22 July Cuneo (Italy) to Jausiers 157.0 km (97.6 mi) Mountain stage  Cyril Dessel (FRA)
17 23 July Embrun to Alpe d'Huez 210.5 km (130.8 mi) Mountain stage  Carlos Sastre (ESP)
18 24 July Bourg-d'Oisans to Saint-Étienne 196.5 km (122.1 mi) Transition stage  Marcus Burghardt (GER)
19 25 July Roanne to Montluçon 165.5 km (102.8 mi) Flat stage  Sylvain Chavanel (FRA)
20 26 July Cérilly to Saint-Amand-Montrond 53.0 km (32.9 mi) Individual time trial  Fabian Cancellara (SUI)
21 27 July Étampes to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 143.0 km (88.9 mi) Flat stage  Gert Steegmans (BEL)
Total 3,559 km (2,211 mi)[13]

Race overview

Romain Feillu was the only French cyclist to wear the yellow jersey in the 2008 Tour de France; he wore it for one day after stage 3.

In the first week of the 2008 Tour de France, the stages were mostly flat. As traditionally in the Tour de France, this resulted in small breakaways of cyclists, and the sprinters' teams trying to get them back. In the first stage, the sprinters won, with Thor Hushovd winning the stage, but in the second stage, four cyclists managed to stay away. The fourth stage was a time trial, won by Stefan Schumacher, who took over the lead. In the fifth stage, the sprinters won the battle and Mark Cavendish won the stage.

The Massif Central mountains were visited in stage six and seven. In stage six, all the breakaways were caught, and the favourites stayed together and finished together. In stage seven, the same scenario, only now Luis León Sánchez managed to stay a few seconds ahead and win the stage. The eighth stage was a sprinter stage, won by Cavendish. Then, from stage nine, the Pyrénées were climbed. Riccardo Riccò broke away from the bunch on the final climb, and won the stage. On stage 10, a group of four with some main contenders escaped, and Leonardo Piepoli won the stage. Stage eleven had easier climbs, and a group of four riders, not important for the overall classification, were allowed to break away and win 14 minutes.

Stages twelve to fourteen were flat stages, and were dominated by the sprinters. Mark Cavendish won another two stages, and Óscar Freire took his first. In the fifteenth stage, a group of four cyclists escaped and stayed away, a similar thing happened in stage sixteen. In the seventeenth stage, Carlos Sastre placed his decisive attack for the general classification, and also won the stage. The eighteenth and nineteenth stage again saw breakaways of cyclists not important for the general classification. The twentieth stage, a time trial, was won by Stefan Schumacher who had also won the first time trial. The last stage was a sprinters' stage, won by Gert Steegmans.


Writing on the street during Tour de France 2008 at Alpe d'Huez, satirically saying that EPO is available in 500 meters.

On 26 May 2008, the 2007 green jersey (points) winner Tom Boonen tested positive for cocaine. Since this was outside competition, Boonen was not sanctioned by the UCI or WADA, but he was nevertheless barred from the 2008 Tour de France.[14][15]

Following protracted disagreement between the organisers of the Tour de France (ASO) and the UCI, the race was sanctioned by the Fédération Française de Cyclisme (FFC), as was the 2008 Paris–Nice in March. Thus the FFC were in charge of the doping controls before and during the race, and rather than increasing the number of doping controls during the Tour, they applied a more targeted approach on suspect riders.[16] The French government's anti-doping agency AFLD carried out approximately 60 random and targeted tests in the weeks leading up to the Tour. They took blood samples from all the 180 riders in a two-day period just before the first stage, and during the race took samples from up to 14 riders a day shortly after the stage was finished, 250 tests being run in total.[17] The Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI) also performed unannounced doping tests of riders at the finish of stage 15, which ended at the ski resort of Prato Nevoso, Italy.[18] On 3 July 2008, France enacted a law criminalizing using or trafficking in doping substances.[19]

On 11 July news broke that Spanish rider Manuel Beltrán tested positive for erythropoietin after the first stage of the tour. Blood abnormalities before the tour start had led AFLD to target the rider. Beltrán's team Liquigas withdrew him from the tour with immediate effect. French law enforcement authorities questioned Beltrán over possible offences and searched his hotel room, but he claimed his innocence. The B-Sample has not yet been tested.[20]

On 13 July, prior to the ninth stage, it was revealed that AFLD had informed team doctors that five riders had unusually high hematocrit levels. The Italian press reported that Riccardo Riccò, who won the stage later that day, had been selected for testing several times during the first week, which led to a suspicion that he was among those whose teams had been notified. Riccò has for some time been known to have a naturally high hematocrit level of 51%, above the 50%-level which usually is taken to be an indicator of possible blood manipulation. Riccò stated that he has a license confirming that this is a natural, long-term condition, which he gave to the doping agencies before the start of the race,[21] but he later admitted to the offence at a hearing of the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI).[22]

On 16 July Barloworld started the 11th stage without Moisés Dueñas, who had been withdrawn from the team after being tested positive for EPO at the end of the time trial fourth stage.[23] Barloworld Ltd, two days later, announced that they were withdrawing from sponsorship after this year's Tour de France,[24] but on 28 October, they announced that they would sponsor the team for another year.[25]

Stefan Schumacher tested positive for MIRCERA following additional testing of his blood samples.

On 17 July, shortly before the start of stage 12, Ricardo Riccò and the rest of the Saunier Duval-Scott team, withdrew from the race after the announcement that he had tested positive for MIRCERA, a new type of EPO, at the end of stage 4.[26][27] Leonardo Piepoli, winner of stage 10, was sacked by his team for "violation of the team's ethics code" the following day, though no positive test was reported at that time.[28] Almost 3 months later his tests came back positive for samples taken one day prior to the start of the Tour, on 4 July, and also on 15 July, on the rest day in Pau.[29]

On the last day of the race, but after the end of the stage, Dmitry Fofonov was announced to have tested positive for the banned stimulant heptaminol after Stage 18. He was asked for a medical exemption to use the stimulant, but did not produce one.[30] He was subsequently fired by his team Crédit Agricole.[31]

After the race ended, French cyclist Jimmy Casper was suspended from Agritubel because he tested positive after the stage to Super Besse for glucocorticoids, an asthma drug that is banned unless the user has a medical exemption for its use. Casper, an asthmatic, carried a therapeutic use exemptions (TUE) for the last twelve years but failed to renew this exemption. His authorisation expired on 29 May and was not renewed before the 2008 Tour de France.[32] The French cycling federation's disciplinary commission exonerated Casper.[33]

In late September it was announced that several Tour de France riders were to have their blood samples retested for traces of EPO. Pierre Bordry, the head of AFLD, claimed the testing involved riders who were already under scrutiny for suspicious urine samples. AFLD had suspicion that there was MIRCERA in some samples but the laboratory could not say definitively. The urine tests were somewhat unreliable at giving definitive results, so the AFLD decided to order the blood samples taken before and during the Tour for additional testing with a newly developed CERA blood test.[34][35]

As a result of this additional testing, both Leonardo Piepoli and Stefan Schumacher tested positive for the same substance which Riccò used, MIRCERA. The riders were declared positive by AFLD.[29]

On 13 October 2008, the AFLD announced that Bernhard Kohl, who finished in third place overall and winner of the climbers' competition, had also tested positive for MIRCERA on 3 and 15 July, before and during the Tour de France.[36][37] Initial results were verified, and Kohl also confessed to doping. His third-place overall finish in the 2008 Tour and his first place in the King of the Mountains competition are considered vacancies in the Tour's official history.[n 2]

Classification leadership

Classification leadership by stage
Stage Winner General classification
Yellow jersey
Points classification
Green jersey
Mountains classification
Polkadot jersey
Young rider classification
White jersey
Team classification
Jersey with yellow number
Combativity award
Jersey with red number
1 Alejandro Valverde Alejandro Valverde Alejandro Valverde Thomas Voeckler Riccardo Riccò Caisse d'Epargne Lilian Jegou
2 Thor Hushovd Kim Kirchen Sylvain Chavanel
3 Samuel Dumoulin Romain Feillu Romain Feillu Garmin–Chipotle–H30 William Frischkorn
4 Kim Kirchen Stefan Schumacher Thomas Lövkvist no award
5 Mark Cavendish Thor Hushovd Nicolas Vogondy
6 Alejandro Valverde Kim Kirchen Kim Kirchen Sylvain Chavanel Sylvain Chavanel
7 Luis León Sánchez David de la Fuente CSC–Saxo Bank Luis León Sánchez
8 Mark Cavendish Óscar Freire Laurent Lefevre
9 Vladimir Efimkin Kim Kirchen Andy Schleck Sebastian Lang
10 Juan José Cobo Cadel Evans Óscar Freire Riccardo Riccò Riccardo Riccò Saunier Duval–Scott Rémy Di Gregorio
11 Kurt Asle Arvesen CSC–Saxo Bank Amaël Moinard
12 Mark Cavendish Sebastian Lang Vincenzo Nibali Arnaud Gérard
13 Mark Cavendish Niki Terpstra
14 Óscar Freire José Ivan Gutierrez
15 Simon Gerrans Fränk Schleck Bernhard Kohl[n 2] Egoi Martínez
16 Cyril Dessel Andy Schleck Stefan Schumacher
17 Carlos Sastre Carlos Sastre Peter Velits
18 Marcus Burghardt Marcus Burghardt
19 Sylvain Chavanel Sylvain Chavanel
20 Fabian Cancellara no award
21 Gert Steegmans Nicolas Vogondy
Final Carlos Sastre Óscar Freire Carlos Sastre Andy Schleck CSC–Saxo Bank Sylvain Chavanel

Final standings

Yellow jersey Denotes the leader of the general classification[40] Polka dot jersey Denotes the leader of the mountains classification[40]
Green jersey Denotes the leader of the points classification[40] White jersey Denotes the leader of the young rider classification[40]
Jersey with a yellow background on the number bib. Denotes the leader of the team classification[40] Jersey with a red background on the number bib. Denotes the winner of the combativity award[40]

General classification

Final general classification (1–10)
Rank Rider Team Time
1  Carlos Sastre (ESP) A yellow jersey. Polka dot jersey A white jersey with a yellow number bib. CSC–Saxo Bank 87h 52' 52"
2  Cadel Evans (AUS) Silence–Lotto + 0' 58"
DSQ  Bernhard Kohl (AUT) Gerolsteiner +1' 13"
3  Denis Menchov (RUS) Rabobank + 2' 10"
4  Christian Vande Velde (USA) Garmin–Chipotle–H30 + 3' 05"
5  Fränk Schleck (LUX) A white jersey with a yellow number bib. CSC–Saxo Bank + 4' 28"
6  Samuel Sánchez (ESP) Euskaltel–Euskadi + 6' 25"
7  Kim Kirchen (LUX) Team Columbia + 6' 55"
8  Alejandro Valverde (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne + 7' 12"
9  Tadej Valjavec (SLO) Ag2r–La Mondiale + 9' 05"
10  Vladimir Efimkin (RUS) Ag2r–La Mondiale + 9' 55"

Points classification

Final points classification (1–10)
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Óscar Freire (ESP) Rabobank 270
2  Thor Hushovd (NOR) Crédit Agricole 220
3  Erik Zabel (GER) Team Milram 217
4  Leonardo Duque (COL) Cofidis 181
5  Kim Kirchen (LUX) Team Columbia 155
6  Alejandro Valverde (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne 136
7  Robert Hunter (RSA) Barloworld 131
8  Robbie McEwen (AUS) Silence–Lotto 129
9  Julian Dean (NZL) Garmin–Chipotle–H30 119
10  Gerald Ciolek (GER) Team Columbia 116

Mountains classification

Final mountains classification (1–10)
Rank Rider Team Points
DSQ  Bernhard Kohl (AUT) Gerolsteiner 128
2  Carlos Sastre (ESP) A yellow jersey. Polka dot jersey A white jersey with a yellow number bib. CSC–Saxo Bank 80
3  Fränk Schleck (LUX) A white jersey with a yellow number bib. CSC–Saxo Bank 80
4  Thomas Voeckler (FRA) Bouygues Télécom 65
5  Sebastian Lang (GER)Gerolsteiner 62
6  Stefan Schumacher (GER)Gerolsteiner 61
7 John-Lee Augustyn (RSA) Barloworld 61
8 Alejandro Valverde (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne 58
9  Rémy Di Gregorio (FRA) Française des Jeux 52
10  Egoi Martínez (ESP) Euskaltel–Euskadi 51

Young rider classification

Final young rider classification (1–10)
Rank Rider Team Time
1  Andy Schleck (LUX) A white jersey.A white jersey with a yellow number bib. CSC–Saxo Bank 88h 04' 24"
2  Roman Kreuziger (CZE) Liquigas + 1' 27"
3  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) Liquigas + 17' 01"
4  Maxime Monfort (BEL) Cofidis + 24' 09"
5  Eduardo Gonzalo (ESP) Agritubel + 1h 08' 34"
6  Thomas Lövkvist (SWE) Team Columbia + 1h 13' 55"
7  John-Lee Augustyn (RSA) Barloworld + 1h 24' 49"
8  Peter Velits (SVK) Team Milram + 1h 38' 17"
9  Rémy Di Gregorio (FRA) Française des Jeux + 1h 38' 22"
10  Luis León Sánchez (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne + 1h 44' 07"

Team classification

Final team classification (1–10)
Rank Team Time
1 CSC–Saxo Bank A white jersey with a yellow number bib. 263h 29' 57"
2 Ag2r–La Mondiale + 15' 35"
3 Rabobank + 1h 05' 26"
4 Euskaltel–Euskadi + 1h 16' 26"
5 Silence–Lotto + 1h 17' 15"
6 Caisse d'Epargne + 1h 20' 28"
7 Team Columbia + 1h 23' 00"
8 Lampre + 1h 26' 24"
9 Gerolsteiner + 1h 27' 40"
10 Crédit Agricole + 1h 37' 16"

Prize money

A total prize fund of approximately €3.25 million was awarded throughout the tour. In addition, each team received €51,243 towards expenses of participation, with an additional €1,600 per rider who completed the race, provided that at least seven did so.[41][42]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Notes
Individual stages €8,000 €4,000 €2,000 €1,200 €830 Prizes down to 20th place (€200).
General classification €450,000 €200,000 €100,000 €70,000 €50,000 All finishers earn at least €400. The wearer of the Yellow Jersey each day gets €350.
Overall points classification €25,000 €15,000 €10,000 €4,000 €3,500 Additional prize money down to 8th place (€2,000). The leader of the ranking each day gets €300.
Intermediate sprints €800 €450 €300 There are 45 such sprints during the tour.
Mountains classification €25,000 €15,000 €10,000 €4,000 €3,500 Additional prize money down to 8th place (€2,000). The leader of the ranking each day gets €300.
Hors category climbs €800 €450 €300 There are 8 HC cols during the tour. There are additional €5,000 prizes for the riders first over the Tourmalet (stage 10) and the Galibier (stage 17).
First category climbs €650 €400 €150 There are 4 such mountains during the tour.
Second category climbs €500 €250 There are 5 such climbs during the tour.
Third category climbs €300 There are 14 such climbs during the tour.
Fourth category climbs €200 There are 26 such climbs during the tour.
Young riders' classification €20,000 €15,000 €10,000 €5,000 The first young rider each day gets €500, and the leader of the ranking each day gets €300.
Combativity prize €20,000 A prize of €2,000 is awarded for each stage except time trials.
Team classification in the Tour de France €50,000 €30,000 €20,000 €12,000 €8,000 The team with the fastest time for its first three finishers each day gets €2,800.

By tradition, a team's winnings were pooled and shared among the riders and support team. Team CSC, the team of Tour winner Sastre, won the most prize money, more than €600,000. Saunier Duval's prize money was not awarded after the positive tests of Riccardo Riccò.[43]

Team CSC received €450,000 for the overall victory of Carlos Sastre.
Team namePrize money
1 Team CSC Saxo Bank €621,210
2 Silence-Lotto €233,450
3 Gerolsteiner €192,370
4 Rabobank €154,250
5 Team Columbia €113,450
6 Cofidis €91,460
7 Garmin-Chipotle €82,570
8 Ag2r-La Mondiale €71,060
9 Caisse d'Epargne €59,510
10 Crédit Agricole €55,450
11 Euskaltel-Euskadi €53,130
12 Liquigas €49,220
13 Française des Jeux €45,780
14 Team Milram €35,490
15 Agritubel €32,540
16 Quick Step €31,470
17 Bouygues Télécom €24,900
18 Barloworld €22,480
19 Lampre €9,840

See also

Notes and references


  1. The 15th stage was due to start at Digne-les-Bains but due to the risk of rock falls in the climb up the Col de Larche, the organisers decided to modify the itinerary. The stage took off from Embrun and head to Prato Nevoso facing the climb up the Col Agnel (2744 m).
  2. 1 2 The results of Austrian cyclist Bernhard Kohl have been removed, after Kohl tested positive and admitted the use of doping.[38][39] As of 27 July 2009, other cyclists have not been upgraded to the positions Kohl's removal has vacated.


  1. 1 2 "Results – Tour de France 2008". Archived from the original on 19 January 2016.
  2. "History of UCI-Grand Tour disputes". Autobus.cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  3. "Tour de France organizers exclude Astana team; Alberto Contador may not defend title". ESPN. Associated Press. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  4. "Garmin is the new title sponsor of the Slipstream-Chipotle team" (Press release). VeloNews. 18 June 2008. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  5. "TOUR 2008 : VINGT ÉQUIPES INVITÉES (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  6. renamed with effect from the date of commencement of the 2008 Tour de France, formerly known as Team High Road : "Columbia Sportswear Announces Sponsorship" (Press release). Team Columbia & High Road Sports, Inc. 15 June 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
  7. "Contador rates Evans as Tour favourite". 25 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  8. All odds taken from skybet.com Archived 19 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. Gregor Brown. "A Grand Tour with minimal transfers and mythical mountains". Cyclingnews.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  10. Historical guide 2016, p. 99.
  11. "95ème Tour de France 2008" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  12. Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  13. Historical guide 2016, p. 110.
  14. "Boonen participation in Tour de France to be decided: Ouick Step". Google. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  15. "Former world champion Tom Boonen barred from Tour de France". Google. 11 June 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  16. "Tour de France under the control of FFC and AFLD". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
  17. "Andrew Hood's Tour de France Notebook – Sastre's Tour: Can we dare to believe?". velonews.com. VeloNews. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
  18. "CONI surprises Schleck with doping control". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
  19. "Law 2008-650 of 3 July 2008, amending the Sports Code" (in French). Legifrance.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  20. "Doping agency: Beltran positive for EPO". Google. Associated Press. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
  21. "Riccò makes it look easy on Col d'Aspin". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
  22. "Ricco criticises Tour drug tests". BBC Sport. 30 July 2008. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
  23. "11:02 – Official Statement From ASO". letour.fr. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  24. "Plug pulled on Team Barloworld". Iol.co.za. 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  25. "The Team Barloworld cycling legend continues...". Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  26. "www.cyclingnews.com presents the 95th Tour de France". Autobus.cyclingnews.com. 2008-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  27. Tierney, John. "Doping once again roils the Tour de France". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  28. "Spanish team sack Ricco & Piepoli". BBC News. 18 July 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  29. 1 2 "Piepoli and Schumacher Tour de France samples positive for MIRCERA". Autobus.cyclingnews.com. 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  30. Keaten, Jamey (28 July 2008). "Team CSC rider Carlos Sastre wins doping-scarred race". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  31. FOFONOV FIRED AFTER POSITIVE TEST | Sporting Life | Beijing Olympics, MotoGP, Athletics, World Rally Championship, Superbikes Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. "Fifth Tour rider fails drugs test". BBC News. 9 August 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  33. "www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling". Autobus.cyclingnews.com. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  34. Tour riders to have blood samples retested – cnn.com Archived 18 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. Tour doping czar begins search for MIRCERA-type EPO – Yahoo Sports
  36. "Kohl admits to failed doping test". BBC News. 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  37. Kohl a triché lui aussi, L'Equipe, 13 October 2008.
  38. Historical guide 2016, p. 117.
  39. Historical guide 2016, p. 123.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ASO 2008, pp. 86–87.
  41. Rules and Stakes at Le Tour.fr Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. "2008 Rules and Stakes at Le Tour.fr (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-09.
  43. "VeloNews 2008 Tour de France information". Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.


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