Ancillaries of the Faith

In Twelver Shia Islam, the ten Ancillaries of the Faith (furūʿ ad-dīn) (فروع الدين} are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform.

According to Twelver doctrine, what is referred to as pillars by Sunni Islam are called the practices or secondary principles. There are three additional practices. The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar. The second is Commanding what is just (Arabic: امر بالمعروف), which calls for every Muslim to live a virtuous life and to encourage others to do the same. The third is Forbidding what is evil (Arabic: النهي عن المنكر), which tells Muslims to refrain from vice and from evil actions and to encourage others to do the same.[1][2][3] Twelvers have five Principles of the Religion which relate to Aqidah.[4]

Salāt (Prayer)

Main article: Salat

A Muslim must perform five prayers a day.

Sawm (Fast)

Main article: Sawm

A Muslim must fast during the month of Ramadhan.

It says in the Qur'an 2:183) "O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil).

2:184) For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.

2:185) The month of Ramadhan is that in which the Qur'an was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore, whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; God desires ease for you, and does not desire for you difficulty, and (desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of God for having guided you and that you may give thanks."

Hajj (Pilgrimage)

Main article: Hajj

A Muslim must perform the pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime if he is able.

Zakāh (Charity)

Main article: Zakat

Paying the poor-tax. A Muslim must perform his or her duty in charity by giving to the poor. 2.5% of a Muslim's wealth every year should go to the poor.

Khums (One-fifth)

Main article: Khums

A Muslim must pay a tax of 20%, levied on untaxed, from annual profit. Khums is tax paid to the Imam (سهم امام) and poor/deserving people.

Jihād (Struggle)

Main article: Jihad

Struggling to please God. There are many types of Jihad.

Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf (Commanding what is good)

Main article: Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf

Amr-bil-ma'rūf is a Qur'anic commandment to enjoin what is good. This is done through living by the rules of God from the Qur'an and hadith. The command to "enjoin what is good" is given in several Qur'anic verses.

Nahi-Anil-Munkar (Forbid what is evil)

Main article: Nahi-Anil-Munkar

Nahi-anil-munkar is a Qur'anic commandment to "forbid what is evil". This can be done by refraining from the sins mentioned by Allah in the Qur'an and the sins Muhammad stated in hadith. Al-munkar means "the rejected". The following verses from the Qur'an are said to command the believers to forbid what is evil:

Tawalla (Expressing love towards Good)

Main article: Tawalla

Expressing love towards the friends of Allah and his prophets, those who desire truth, righteous people and supporters of truth and justice.

Tabarra (Expressing disassociation from Evil)

Main article: Tabarra

Showing disassociation from the evildoers, oppressors, enemies of Allah and His Prophet and humanity.

See also


  1. Momen (1987), p.180
  2. Momem (1987), p.178
  3. "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  4. Momem (1987), p.176

External links

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