Bahmani Sultanate

"Bahmani" redirects here. For places in Iran, see Bahmani, Iran.
Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate, 1470 CE
Capital Gulbarga (1347–1425)
Bidar (1425–1527)
Languages Persian Language, Urdu, Dakhini, Marathi, Telugu, Kannada
Religion Sunni Islam[1][2]
Government Monarchy
   1347–1358 Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
  1525–1527 Kalim-Allah Shah
Historical era Late Medieval
   Established 3 August 1347
   Disestablished 1527
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Vijaynagar Empire
Delhi Sultanate
Deccan sultanates
Today part of  India

The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms.[3] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.[4]

The empire was established by Turkic general Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah after revolting against the Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.[5] Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Ahsanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijayanagara Empire to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan. The south Indian Emperor Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed.[6] After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states: Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Qutb Shahi of Golconda (Hyderabad), Baridshahi of Bidar, Imadshahi of Berar, Adilshahi of Bijapur. They are collectively known as the "Deccan Sultanates".



Later rulers of the dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman, the mythological figure of Greater Iranian legend and lore. The Bahamani Sultans were patrons of the Persian language, culture and literature, and some members of the dynasty became well-versed in that language and composed its literature in that language.[4]

The craftspersons of Bidar were so famed for their inlay work on copper and silver that it came to be known as Bidri.

List of Bahmani Shahs

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Independence from Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
علاء الدین حسن بہمن شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
حسن گنگو
1347–1358 CE
Muhammad Shah Bahmani I
محمد شاہ بہمنی
1358–1375 CE
Ala-ud-Din Mujahid Shah
علاء الدین مجاہد شاہ
Mujahid Shah Bahmani
مجاہد شاہ بہمنی
1375–1378 CE
Dawood Shah Bahmani
داود شاہ بہمنی
1378 CE
Mahmood Shah Bahmani I
محمود شاہ بہمنی
1378–1397 CE
Ghiyath-ud-din Shah Bahmani
عیاث الدین شاہ بہمنی
1397 CE
Shams-ud-din Shah Bahmani
شمس الدین شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Lachin Khan Turk
1397 CE
Taj-ud-Din Feroze Shah
تاج الدین فیروز شاہ
Feroze Khan
فیروز خان
1397–1422 CE
Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani
احمد شاہ ولی بہمنی
1422–1436 CE
Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah
علاء الدین احمد شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Ahmed Shah Bahmani
علاء الدین احمد شاہ بہمنی
1436–1458 CE
Ala-ud-Din Humayun Shah
علاء الدین ھمایوں شاہ
Humayun Shah Zalim Bahmani
ھمایوں شاہ ظالم بہمنی
1458–1461 CE
Nizam Shah Bahmani
نظام شاہ بہمنی
1461–1463 CE
Muhammad Shah Lashkari
محمد شاہ لشکری
Muhammad Shah Bahmani II
محمد شاہ بہمنی دوئم
1463–1482 CE
Vira Shah
ویرا شاہ
Mahmood Shah Bahmani II
محمود شاہ بہمنی دوئم
1482–1518 CE
Ahmed Shah Bahmani II
احمد شاہ بہمنی دوئم
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1518–1521 CE
Ala-ud-Din Shah
علاء الدین شاہ
Ala-ud-Din Shah Bahmani II
علاء الدین شاہ بہمنی دوئم
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1521–1522 CE
Waliullah Shah Bahmani
ولی اللہ شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1522–1525 CE
Kaleemullah Shah Bahmani
کلیم اللہ شاہ بہمنی
Puppet King Under Amir Barid I
1525–1527 CE
Dissolution of the Sultanate into 5 Kingdoms namely; Bidar Sultanate; Ahmednagar Sultanate; Bijapur Sultanate; Golconda Sultanate and Berar Sultanate.
Great Mosque in Gulbarga Fort
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa was built by Mahmud Gawan, the Vizier of the Bahmani Sultanate as the centre of learning in the Deccan.

See also


  1. Burjor Avari, Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian subcontinent, (Routledge, 2013), 91.
  2. Farooqui Salma Ahmed, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century, (Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd., 2011), 170.
  3. "The Five Kingdoms of the Bahmani Sultanate". Retrieved 2007-01-05.
  4. 1 2 Ansari, N.H. "Bahmanid Dynasty" Archived 19 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopaedia Iranica
  5. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 106–108,117. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  6. Eaton, Richard M. A Social History of the Deccan, 1300-1761: Eight Indian Lives. p. 88.

Further reading

External links

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