Islamophobic incidents

This article is about specific events. For information about general persecution, see Persecution of Muslims.

The following is a list of a number of recent incidents characterized as inspired by Islamophobia by commentators. Note that "Islamophobia" became a popular term in ideological debate in the 2000s, and may have been applied retrospectively to earlier incidents.

Incidents and conditions by country


In Nardaran, a deadly incident broke out between Azerbaijan security forces and religious Shia residents in which two policemen and four suspected Shia Muslim militants were killed.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

As a result of this incident, the Azerbaijani parliament passed laws prohibiting people with religious education received abroad to implement Islamic rites and ceremonies in Azerbaijan, as well as to preach in mosques and occupy leading positions in the country; as well as prohibiting the display of religious paraphernalia, flags and slogans, except in places of worship, religious centers and offices.[11] Ashura festivities in public have also been banned.[12] The Azerbaijani government also passed a law to remove the citizenship of Azerbaijani citizens who fight abroad.[13]

The Azerbaijan authorities cracked down on observant Sunni Muslims.[14]


Mass grave where events of the Srebrenica massacre of Bosnian Muslims unfolded
Burial of 465 identified Bosniaks in 2007.
Main article: Bosnian Genocide

In the 1990s, the Bosnian Genocide and Kosovo War, both of which involved the "mass murder of innocent Muslims," have been linked to Islamophobia.[15] In Bosnia, Christian Serb and Croat militias carried out genocidal attacks on the Muslim Bosniak community. According to the ICRC data on the Bosnian Genocide, "200,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes."[16] Many attacks on religious buildings and symbols took place in towns such as Foča, where all of the town's mosques were destroyed. On 22 April 1992, Serbs blew up the Aladža Mosque and eight more mosques dating from the 16th and 17th centuries were damaged or completely destroyed.[17]


In 1989, 310,000 Turks left Bulgaria, many under pressure as a result of the communist Zhivkov regime's assimilation campaign (though up to a third returned before the end of the year). That program, which began in 1984, forced all Turks and other Muslims in Bulgaria to adopt Bulgarian names and renounce all Muslim customs. The motivation of the 1984 assimilation campaign is unclear; however, some experts believe that the disproportion between the birth rates of the Turks and the Bulgarians was a major factor.[18] During the name-changing phase of the campaign, Turkish towns and villages were surrounded by army units. Citizens were issued new identity cards with Bulgarian names. Failure to present a new card meant forfeiture of salary, pension payments, and bank withdrawals. Birth or marriage certificates would be issued only in Bulgarian names. Traditional Turkish costumes were banned; homes were searched and all signs of Turkish identity removed. Mosques were closed. According to estimates, 500 to 1,500 people were killed when they resisted assimilation measures, and thousands of others were imprisoned or sent to labor camps or were forcibly resettled.[19]


Halima Mautbur, from the Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations called an attack on a hijab-wearing Muslim woman "an Islamophobic incident".[20]


The Uyghurs are an ethnic minority from Xinjiang in northwest China. Uyghurs face religious persecution and discrimination at the hands of the government authorities. Uyghurs who choose to practice their faith can only use a state-approved version of the Koran;[21] men who work in the state sector cannot wear beards and women cannot wear headscarves.[22] The Chinese state controls the management of all mosques, which many Uyghurs claim stifles religious traditions that have formed a crucial part of their identity for centuries.[23] Children under the age of 18 are not allowed to attend religious services at mosques.[24]

However, the suppression of the Uyghurs has more to do with the fact that they are separatist, rather than Muslim. China banned a book titled "Xing Fengsu" ("Sexual Customs") which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs,[35] Hui Muslim protestors who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.[36]

Different Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government in regards to religious freedom. Religious freedom is present for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build Mosques, and have their children attend Mosques, while more controls are placed specifically on Uyghurs in Xinjiang.[37] Since the 1980s Islamic private schools have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang from allowing these schools because of separatist sentiment there.[38]

Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist party allows Hui Muslims to violate this law and have their children educated in religion and attend Mosques while the law is enforced on Uyghurs. After secondary education is completed, China then allows Hui students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam.[39] China does not enforce the law against children attending Mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang.[40][41] Since the 1980s Islamic private schools (Sino-Arabic schools (中阿學校)) have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang from allowing these schools because of separatist sentiment there.[38]

Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions, the amount of Hui going on Hajj is expanding, and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them and Uyghurs find it difficult to get passports to go on Hajj.[42]

Hui religious schools are allowed a massive autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader was formed with the approval of the Chinese government even as he admitted to attending an event where Bin Laden spoke.[43][44]

"The Diplomat" reported on the fact that while Uyghur's religious activities are curtailed, Hui Muslims are granted widespread religious freedom and that therefore the policy of the Chinese government towards Uyghurs in Xinjiang is not directed against Islam, but rather aggressively stamping out the Uyghur separatist threat.[45]

Tensions between Hui Muslims and Uyghurs arise because Hui troops and officials often dominated the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts.[46] Xinjiang's Hui population increased by over 520 percent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China.[47] Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries.[48] Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques.[49]

Uyghur views vary by the oasis they live in. China has historically favored Turpan and Hami. Uyghurs in Turfan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed the rulers of Turpan and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs.[50] Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more economically prosperous and views China more positively than the rebellious Kashgar, which is the most anti-China oasis. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated leniently and favourably by China with regards to religious policies, while Kashgar is subjected to controls by the government.[51][52] In Turpan and Hami, religion is viewed more positively by China than religion in Kashgar and Khotan in southern Xinjiang.[53] Both Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law and allow religious Islamic education for Uyghur children.[54][55] Celebrating at religious functions and going on Hajj to Mecca is encouraged by the Chinese government, for Uyghur members of the Communist party. From 1979-1989, 350 mosques were built in Turpan.[56] Han, Hui, and the Chinese government are viewed much more positively by Uyghurs specifically in Turpan, with the government providing better economic, religious, and political treatment for them.[57]


The Hui people have had a long presence in Qinghai and Gansu, or what Tibetans call Amdo, although Tibetans have historically dominated local politics. The situation was reversed in 1931 when the Hui general Ma Bufang inherited the governorship of Qinghai, stacking his government with Hui and Salar and excluding Tibetans. In his power base in Qinghai's northeastern Haidong Prefecture, Ma compelled many Tibetans to convert to Islam and acculturate. When Hui started migrating into Lhasa in the 1990s, racist rumors circulated among Tibetans in Lhasa about the Hui, such as that they were cannibals or ate children.[58]:2, 5, 10, 17–20 On February 2003, Tibetans rioted against Hui, destroying Hui-owned shops and restaurants.[59] Local Tibetan Buddhist religious leaders led a regional boycott movement that encouraged Tibetans to boycott Hui-owned shops, spreading the racist myth that Hui put the ashes of cremated imams in the cooking water they used to serve Tibetans food, in order to convert Tibetans to Islam.[58]

In Tibet, the majority of Muslims are Hui people. Hatred between Tibeans and Muslims stems from events during the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang's rule in Qinghai such as Ngolok rebellions (1917–49) and the Sino-Tibetan War, but in 1949 the Communists put an end to the violence between Tibetans and Muslims, however, new Tibetan-Muslim violence broke out after China engaged in liberalization. Riots broke out between Muslims and Tibetans over incidents such as bones in soups and prices of balloons, and Tibetans accused Muslims of being cannibals who cooked humans in their soup and of contaminating food with urine. Tibetans attacked Muslim restaurants. Fires set by Tibetans which burned the apartments and shops of Muslims resulted in Muslim families being killed and wounded in the 2008 mid-March riots. Due to Tibetan violence against Muslims, the traditional Islamic white caps have not been worn by many Muslims. Scarfs were removed and replaced with hairnets by Muslim women in order to hide. Muslims prayed in secret at home when in August 2008 the Tibetans burned the Mosque. Incidents such as these which make Tibetans look bad on the international stage are covered up by the Tibetan exile community. The repression of Tibetan separatism by the Chinese government is supported by Hui Muslims.[60] In addition, Chinese-speaking Hui have problems with Tibetan Hui (the Tibetan speaking Kache minority of Muslims).[61]

On October 8, 2012, a mob of about 200 Tibetan monks beat a dozen Dungans (Hui Muslims) in Luqu County, Gansu province, in retaliation for the Chinese Muslim community's application to build a mosque in the county.[62]

The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans and Chinese Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters in the 2008 Tibetan unrest.[63] Tibetan exiles and foreign scholars like ignore and do not talk about sectarian violence between Tibetan Buddhists and Muslims.[58] The majority of Tibetans viewed the wars against Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11 positively and it had the effect of galvanizing anti-Muslim attitudes among Tibetans and resulted in an anti-Muslim boycott against Muslim owned businesses.[58]:17 Tibetan Buddhists propagate a false libel that Muslims cremate their Imams and use the ashes to convert Tibetans to Islam by making Tibetans inhale the ashes, even though the Tibetans seem to be aware that Muslims practice burial and not cremation since they frequently clash against proposed Muslim cemeteries in their area.[58]:19

Since the Chinese government supports and backs up the Hui Muslims, the Tibetans deliberately attack the Hui Muslims as a way to demonstrate anti-government sentiment and because they have a background of sectarian violence against each other since Ma Bufang's rule due to their separate religions and ethnicity and Tibetans resent Hui economic domination.[64]


Doudou Diène, in a report prepared by the UN Commission on Human Rights released on March 7, 2006, mentioned the publishing of the cartoons at the heart of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy regarding, "The development of Islamophobia or any racism and racial discrimination ..."[65]


Two mosques and one Muslim-owned business were attacked in France in January 2015

In 2008, 148 French Muslim graves were desecrated near Arras. A pig's head was hung from a headstone and profanities insulting Islam and Muslims were daubed on some graves.[66] Dalil Boubakeur, a director of a Paris mosque described the vandalism on a Mosque in Paris, France as Islamophobic.[67] On December 13, 2009, The Mosque of Castres in southern France, was vandalized in the night.[68] Swastika in black paint, "Sieg Heil" in German, "France to the French" in French, and "White Power" in English were scrawled on the mosque.[69] Additionally, a pig feet was hung on the mosque.[70]

In 2010 France banned face coverings including women wearing the niqab. The French Collective against Islamophobia reported "an explosion" in the number of physical attacks on women wearing the niqab. Kenza Drider, a protester against the law, said: "I'm insulted about three to four times a day. Most say, 'Go home'; some say, 'We'll kill you.' One said: 'We'll do to you what we did to the Jews.'... I feel that I now know what Jewish women went through before the Nazi roundups in France. When they went out in the street they were identified, singled out, they were vilified. Now that's happening to us."[71]

After the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, there were reports of attacks on mosques and Muslim citizens throughout the country.[72]


On July 1, 2009, Marwa El-Sherbini was stabbed to death in a courtroom in Dresden, Germany. She had just given evidence against her attacker who had used insults against her because she wore an Islamic headscarf. El-Sherbini was called "Islamist", "terrorist" and (according to one report) "slut".[note 1]

The Bosphorus serial murders took place between 2000 and 2006. The police discovered a hit list of 88 people that included "two prominent members of the Bundestag and representatives of Turkish and Islamic groups".[73]


17-year-old Du'a Khalil Aswad, an Iraqi Kurdish girl of the Yazidi faith, was stoned to death in front of a mob of about 2000 men in 2007, because she had a Muslim boyfriend and because she was planning to convert to Islam.[74][75]


In May 2010, a mosque in the West Bank was destroyed in an arson attack.[76] In previous months, other mosques had been attacked; some were vandalised with Hebrew graffiti and other mosques have been destroyed or damaged by arson in the past.[76] In June 2010, there were further acts of vandalism against mosques by Israelis. In northern Israel the walls of mosques were spray painted with the Star of David as well as messages such as "There will be war over Judea and Samaria" and "This structure is marked for demolition."[77]


Religious clashes have been intermittent in modern India, which saw its own birth being marred by the religious riots that took place during the Direct Action Day and during its partition. Since then, India has seen violent incidents involving both the majority Hindu population and the Muslim population in a series of communal riots, one of which was the Bhagalpur riots of 1989, which has led to the death of 900-1000 Muslims and leaving 50,000 displaced.[78] Recently, India has also seen tensions between Hindus and Muslims in the 2002 Gujarat violence; In response to the Godhra train burning, the nationalist party Vishva Hindu Parishad had organized protests that had immediately turned violent.[79] After days of rioting and violence, it was estimated that 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, 2500 injured and 223 missing.[80]


Under the reign of President Suharto during the New Order (Indonesia), Islamists were suppressed, and religious Muslims were actively persecuted by the Indonesian government. Several Christian Generals who served under Suharto like Leonardus Benjamin Moerdani actively persecuted religious Muslims in the Indonesian military, which was described as being "anti-Islamic", denying religious Muslims promotions, and preventing them from praying in the barracks and banning them from even using the Islamic greeting "Salaam Aleikum", and these anti-Islamic polices were entirely supported by Suharto, despite Suharto being a Muslim himself, since he considered political Islam a threat to his power.[81][82][83][84] The Christian General Theo Syafei, who also served under Suharto, spoke out against political Islam coming to power in Indonesia, and insulted the Qur'an and Islam in remarks which were described as Islamophobic.[85][86][87][88][89][90]


The anti-Buddhist actions of the Taliban in Afghanistan (the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan) was used as a pretext to commit violence against Muslims in Myanmar by Buddhist mobs. Human Rights Watch reports that there was mounting tension between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Taungoo for weeks before it erupted into violence in the middle of May 2001. Buddhist monks demanded that the Hantha Mosque in Taungoo be destroyed in "retaliation" for the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan.[91] Mobs of Buddhists, led by monks, vandalized Muslim owned businesses and property and attacked and killed Muslims in Muslim communities. This was followed by retaliation by Muslims against Buddhists. Human Rights Watch also alleges that Burmese military intelligence agents disguised as monks, led the mobs.[92]


Anders Behring Breivik, the confessed perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, two sequential attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011 that killed 77 people and wounded at least as many, is described as a 32-year-old Norwegian Islamophobic right-wing extremist. In a manifesto, he describes opposition to what he saw as an Islamisation of Europe as his motive for carrying out the attacks.[93]


Further information: Moro people

The Muslim Moro people live in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao and southern provinces, remain disadvantaged in terms of employment, social mobility, education and housing. Muslims in the Philippines are frequently discriminated against in the media as scapegoats or warmongers.[94] This has established escalating tensions that have contributed to the ongoing conflict between the Philippine government, Christians and Moro people.

There has been an ongoing exodus of Moro (Tausug, Samal, Islamized Bajau, Illanun, Maguindanao) to Malaysia (Sabah) and Indonesia (North Kalimantan) between the last 30 to 50 years, due to the illegal annexation of their land by Christian Filipino militants such as the Ilaga, who were responsible for massacres of Muslim villages from the 1970s to the late 1990s. This has changed the population statistics in both countries to a significant degree, and has caused the gradual displacement of the Moros from their traditional lands.


See also: Islam in Russia

Due to the large activity of the Islamic Chechens in organised crime and terrorism many Russians (including authorities) have associated Islam and Muslims with terrorism and domestic crimes.[95][96][97][98]

In 2007, a video was released on the internet of a Tajik and a Dagestani immigrant being beheaded in response to the beheading of 6 Russian soldiers done by the Chechens.[99]

Sri Lanka

The 1990 expulsion of Muslims from Sri Lanka was an act of ethnic cleansing[100][101] carried out by Tamils of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) organization in October 1990. In order to achieve their goal of creating a mono ethnic Tamil state[102][103] in the North Sri Lanka, the LTTE forcibly expelled the 75,000 strong Muslim population from the Northern Province.[104] The first expulsion was in Chavakacheri, of 1,500 people. After this, Muslims in Kilinochchi and Mannar were forced many to leave their homeland. The turn of Jaffna came on 30 October 1990; when LTTE trucks drove through the streets ordering Muslim families to assemble at Osmania College. There, they were told to exit the city within two hours.

On 4 August 1990, Tamil militants massacred over 147 Muslims in a mosque in Kattankudi.[105][106][107][108] The act took place when around 30 Tamil rebels raided four mosques in the town of Kattankudi, where over 300 people were prostrating during prayers. The LTTE later apologized (during the 2000 peace talks) for this act and asked the Muslims to return, but very few Muslims have taken up the offer.[109]

Religious minorities have been subjected to increased persecution and attacks owing to the widespread mono-ethnic Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism in Sri Lanka.[110][111][112][113] A nationalistic Buddhist group, Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), is alleged to have been behind attacks on Mosques and Muslims,[114][115][116][117] as well as having organized a moral unofficial police team to check the activities of Christian missionaries and Muslim influence in daily life.[118][119][120] The BBC reported that "Sri Lanka’s Muslim minority is being targeted by hardline Buddhists. [...] There have also been assaults on churches and Christian pastors but it is the Muslims who are the most concerned.[121] The BBS has received criticism and oppostition from other Buddhist clergy and politicians. Mangala Samaraweera, a Sri Lankan Theravada Buddhist politician who has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2015, has accused the BBS of being "a representation of ‘Taliban’ terrorism’" and of spreading extremism and communal hatred against Muslims.[122][123] Samaraweera has also alleged that the BBS is secretly funded by the Ministry of Defence.[122][123] Anunayake Bellanwila Wimalaratana, deputy incumbent of Bellanwila Rajamaha Viharaya and President of the Bellanwila Community Development Foundation, has stated that "The views of the Bodu Bala Sena are not the views of the entire Sangha community" and that "We don’t use our fists to solve problems, we use our brains".[124] Wataraka Vijitha Thero, a buddhist monk who condemns violence against Muslims and heavily criticized the BBS and the government, has been attacked and tortured for his stances.[125][126][127]

Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism is opposed to Sarvodaya, although they share many of the same influences like Dharmapāla's teachings by example, by having a focus upon Sinhalese culture and ethnicity sanctioning the use of violence in defence of dhamma, while Sarvodaya has emphasized the application of Buddhist values in order to transform society and campaigning for peace.[128]


Main article: Islam in Tajikistan

Mosques are not permitted to allow women in, only state controlled religious education is approved for children and long beards are banned in Tajikistan.[129][130]

In Tajikistan, Mosques are banned from allowing Friday Prayers for younger than 18 year old children.[131][132][133][134] Tajikistan bans youth from mosques [135][136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147]

The government has shut down Mosques and forbids foreign religious education.[148] From the beginning of 2011 1,500 Mosques were shut down by the Tajik government, in addition to banning the hijab for children, banning the use of loudspeakers for the call of prayer, forbidding mosques from allowing women to enter, and monitoring Imams and students learning an Islamic education abroad, having sermons in the Mosque approved by the government and limiting the Mosque sermons to 15 minutes.[149] Muslims experienced the most negative effects from the "Religion Law" enacted by the government of Tajikistan, curtailing sermons by Imams during weddings, making the "Cathedral mosques" the only legal place for sermons to be given by Imams with sermons not being allowed in five-fold mosques, the five-fold mosques are small mosques and serve a limited number of people while the medium and big mosques are categorized as Cathedral mosques, girls who wore the hijab have been expelled from schools and hijabs and beards are not permitted on passport photos.[150] Mosques have been demolished and shut down by the Tajikistan government on the excuses that they were not registered and therefore not considered as mosques by the government.[151] Tajikistan has targeted religious groups like Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, Christians, and Muslims who try to evade control by the government, synagogue, churches, and Mosques have been shut down and destroyed, only a certain amount of mosques are allowed to operate and the state must approve all "religious activity", in which younger than 18 year old children are not allowed to join in.[152] Buildings for religious worhsip for Johovah's Witnesses, Protestant Churches, the Jewish Synagogue, and Muslim mosques have been targeted, destroyed, and shut down and prayers are forbidden to take place in public halls, with severed restrictions placed on religion.[153] Tajikistan forced religious communities to re-register with the government and shut Mosques and Churches down which refused re-registration in 2009.[154] Churches, a synagogue, and mosques have been destroyed by the Tajikistan government.[155] Government approval is required for Tajiks seeking to engage in religious studies in foreign countries and religious activities of Muslims in particular are subjected to controls by the Tajikistan government.[156] State control has been implemented on Islamic madrasahs, Imams, and Mosques by Tajikistan.[157] A list of sermon "topics" for Imams has been created by the Tajikistan government.[158] Towns are only allowed to have a certain number of mosques and only religious buildings sanctioned by the government are allowed to host religious activities, schools have banned hijab, religious studies in private have been forbidden mosque religious services are not allowed to admit children and non registered mosques have been closed.[159][160][161] Religious matters are banned for under 18 year old childrenPublic buildings do not allow beards, schools ban hijabs, unregistered mosques are shut down, and sermons are subjected to government authority.[162] Only if "provided the child expresses a desire to learn" can a family teach religion to their own children, while the Tajik government banned all non-family private education.[163] Islam and Muslims have been subjected to controls by the Tajikistan government, the states decides what sermons the Imams give, the government discharges the salaries of Imams and there is only a single madrasah in Tajikistan.[164]

Jehovah's Witnesses have been declared illegal in Tajikistan.[165] Abundant Life Christian Centre, Ehyo Protestant Church, and Jehovah's witnesses have accused Tajikistan of lying about them not being declared illegal at a Warsaw OSCE conference for human rights.[166]

Among increasingly religious Tajiks, Islamic-Arabic names have become more popular over Tajik names.[167]

The Tajik government has used the word "prostitute" to label hijab wearing women and enforced shaving of beards, in addition to considering the outlawing of Arabic-Islamic names for children and making people use Tajik names even though Imam Ali (Emomali) is an Arabic name and is the first name of the Tajikistan President.[168][169][170][171][172][173][174] Tajikistan President Rakhmon (Rahmon) has said that the Persian epic Shahnameh should be used as a source for names, with his proposed law hinting that Muslim names would be forbidden after his anti hijab and anti beard laws.[175]

The black colored Islamic veil was attacked and criticized in public by Tajik President Emomali Rahmon.[176]

The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan has been banned by the Tajik government.[177][178][179]

Tajikistan's restrictions on Islam has resulted in a drastic decrease of big beards and hijabs.[180] Tajikistan bans Salafism under the name "Wahhabi", which is applied to forms of Islam not permitted by the government.[181]

160 Islamic clothing stores were shut down and 13,000 men were forcibly shaved by the Tajik police and Arabic names were banned by the parliament of Tajikistan as part of a secularist campaign by President Emomali Rajmon.[182][183][184][185]

Arabic names were outlawed by the legislature of Tajikistan.[186]

In Uzbekistan and Tajikistan women wore veils which covered their entire face and body like the Paranja and faranji. The traditional veil in Central Asia worn before modern times was the faranji but it was banned by the Soviet Communists[187] but the Tajikistan President Emomali has misleadingly tried to claim that veils were not part of Tajik culture.[176]

After an Islamic Renaissance Party member was allowed to visit Iran by the Iranian government a diplomatic protest was made by Tajikistan.[188]

United Kingdom

The English Defence League organises demonstrations against Islamism, but has been criticised for targeting Muslims in general.

In March 2006, Jamia Masjid mosque in Preston was attacked by gangs of white youths using brick and concrete block. The youths damaged a number of cars outside the mosque and stabbed a 16-year-old Muslim teenager.[189] On July 6, 2009, the Glasgow branch of Islamic Relief was badly damaged by a fire which police said was started deliberately, and which members of the Muslim community of Scotland allege was Islamophobic.[190]

In 2005, The Guardian commissioned an ICM poll which indicated an increase in anti-Muslim incidents, particularly after the London bombings in July 2005.[191][192] Another survey of Muslims, this by the Open Society Institute, found that of those polled 32% believed they had suffered religious discrimination at airports, and 80% said they had experienced Islamophobia.[193][194] In July 2005, a Muslim man, Kamal Raza Butt, was beaten to death outside a corner shop in Nottingham by a gang of youths who shouted anti-Islamic abuse at him.[195]

On the 26 August 2007 fans of the English football club Newcastle United directed anti-Muslim chants at Egyptian Middlesbrough F.C. striker Mido. An FA investigation was launched[196] He revealed his anger at The FA's investigation, believing that they would make no difference to any future abuse.[197] Two men were eventually arrested over the chanting and were due to appear at Teesside Magistrates Court.[198]

In January 2010, a report from the University of Exeter's European Muslim research centre noted that the number of anti-Muslim hate crimes has increased, ranging from "death threats and murder to persistent low-level assaults, such as spitting and name-calling," for which the media and politicians have been blamed with fueling anti-Muslim hatred. The Islamophobic incidents it described include: "Neil Lewington, a violent extremist nationalist convicted in July 2009 of a bomb plot; Terence Gavan, a violent extremist nationalist convicted in January 2010 of manufacturing nail bombs and other explosives, firearms and weapons; a gang attack in November 2009 on Muslim students at City University; the murder in September 2009 of Muslim pensioner, Ikram Syed ul-Haq; a serious assault in August 2007 on the Imam at London Central Mosque; and an arson attack in June 2009 on Greenwich Islamic Centre."[199][200] Other Islamophobic incidents mentioned in the report include "Yasir, a young Moroccan," being "nearly killed while waiting to take a bus from Willesden to Regent's Park in London" and "left in a coma for three months"; "Mohammed Kohelee," a "caretaker who suffered burns to his body while trying to prevent an arson attack against Greenwich Mosque"; "the murder" of "Tooting pensioner Ekram Haque" who "was brutally beaten to death in front of his three year old granddaughter" by a "race-hate" gang; and "police officers" being injured "during an English Defence League (EDL) march in Stoke."[201]

An academic paper by Katy Sian published in the journal South Asian Popular Culture in 2011 explored the question of how "forced conversion narratives" arose around the Sikh diaspora in the United Kingdom.[202] Sian, who reports that claims of conversion through courtship on campuses are widespread in the UK, says that rather than relying on actual evidence they primarily rest on the word of "a friend of a friend" or on personal anecdote. According to Sian, the narrative is similar to accusations of "white slavery" lodged against the Jewish community and foreigners to the UK and the US, with the former having ties to anti-semitism that mirror the Islamophobia betrayed by the modern narrative. Sian expanded on these views in 2013's Mistaken Identities, Forced Conversions, and Postcolonial Formations.[203]

United States of America

A protester at a counter-demonstration against the September 15, 2007 anti-war protest in Washington, D.C.

In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, many residents of Middle Eastern descent and African American Muslims became victims of the initial rage at "Muslim terrorists" as the initial news stories hypothesized. KFOR-TV's coverage of the bombing informed viewers that a member of the Nation of Islam had taken credit for the bombing. Even though the network cautioned that it might be a crank call, it repeated the claim throughout the day's coverage.[204] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the bombings, "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[205] There were also suggestions on the radio that all Arab Americans "be put in internment camps".[204]

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, hate crimes against people of Middle-Eastern descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000 to 1,501 attacks in 2001.[206] Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle-Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country"[205] and four immigrants shot and killed by a man named Larme Price who confessed to killing them as "revenge" for the September 11 attacks.[207] Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. This appears to be a trend; on account of stereotypes of Arabs, several non-Arab, non-Muslim groups were subjected to attacks in the wake of 9/11, including several Sikh men attacked for wearing their religiously mandated turban.[208] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing (which was committed by anti-government white American Timothy McVeigh), "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[205]

Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in September 2007 in what authorities call a bias crime.[209] Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpetrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in which she was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said.[209]

While en route to Chicago, Shahrukh Khan, a well-known Bollywood actor, was held for what he described as "humiliating" questioning for several hours in Newark Airport, New Jersey because of his common Muslim surname Khan. He was released only following the intervention of the Indian embassy.[210][211]

On August 25, 2010, a New York taxi driver was stabbed after a passenger asked if he was Muslim.[212]

The Dove World Outreach Center church in Gainesville, Florida planned to burn Qurans on the ninth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Despite warning from the military leadership in the Afghan War, Terry Jones, the pastor of the centre, said it would be "tragic" if anybody's life was lost as a result of the planned Quran burning. While he added "Still, I must say that we feel that we must sooner or later stand up to Islam, and if we don't, it's not going to go away." His church's website claims to "expose Islam" as a "violent and oppressive religion;" it also displays a sign reading "Islam is of the Devil."[213]

In April 2012, various media sources reported that the Joint Forces Staff College taught an anti-Islam course. The course taught that "they [Muslims] hate everything you stand for and will never coexist with you." It also proposed justified the destruction of the cities of Mecca and Medina "without regard for civilian deaths". The course was suspended after a student objected to the material.[214][215]

In early August 2012 U.S. Representative Joe Walsh (R-IL) said at a town hall that radical Muslims were “trying to kill Americans every week.” Soon after his remarks several attacks against Muslims took place in his district, including an August 12 acid bomb attack on a Muslim school in Lombard, Illinois during evening Ramadan prayers and hate graffiti found on August 16 in a Muslim Cemetery.[216] There also were several other attacks of mosques with pellet guns, acid bombs, eggs, or unclean animal parts. Some incidents are being investigated as hate crimes.[217]

In February 10th, 2015, Deah Shaddy Barakat, Yusor Mohammad Abu-Salha, and Razan Mohammad Abu-Salha, graduate students at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, were shot in a suspected hate crime by a neighbor who expressed anti-Islamic views. [218]

In October 2016, a Lebanese-American man was shot and killed on his porch in Tulsa, Oklahoma by an Islamophobic neighbor who regularly called him a "dirty muslim" and "aye-rab." [219]

Research suggests that hate crimes and discrimination against Muslims in the United States leads to lower assimilation rates.[220]


The Cham Muslims in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Muslim Chams have experienced violent religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on practicing their faith under the current Vietnamese government, with the Vietnamese state confisticating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing their religious beliefs. In 2010 and 2013 several incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where Cham were murdered by Vietnamese. In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham girls.[221] Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalized and pushed into poverty by Vietnamese policies, with ethnic Vietnamese Kinh settling on majority Cham land with state support, and religious practices of minorities have been targeted for elimination by the Vietnamese government.[222]

Incidents on aircraft

Some incidents with Muslim passengers on aircraft have given rise to the expression "Flying while Muslim".[223]

See also


  1. The police report stated that Wiens called El-Sherbini Terroristin, Islamistin and Schlampe. (Der Spiegel, 31 August 2009, p. 65).


  11. "В Азербайджане запретят мулл, обучавшихся за границей (Azerbaijan has banned mullahs studying abroad)" (in Russian). 2 December 2015.
  12. "В Азербайджане запрещают различные представления в дни Ашура (Azerbaijan will forbid various representations in the days of Ashura)" (in Russian). 2 December 2015.
  13. "Террористов будут лишать азербайджанского гражданства (Terrorists will be deprived Azerbaijani citizenship)" (in Russian). 2 December 2015.
  15. Z. Husain & D. M. Rosenbaum (2004). "Perceiving Islam: The Causes and Consequences of Islamophobia in the Western Media". In Santosh C. Saha. Religious fundamentalism in the contemporary world: critical social and political issues. Lexington Books. pp. 177–8. ISBN 0-7391-0760-7.
  16. Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina, Head of the Delegation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly on the occasion of the General Debate, Summary, 23 September 2008, pp. 2.
  17. "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements". Archived from the original on February 19, 2009.
  18. Glenn E. Curtis, ed. Bulgaria: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1992
  19. Library of Congress, A Country Study: Bulgaria, Call Number DR55.B724 1993
  20. Muslim groups want action from U of T, University of Toronto News, March 16, 2006 Archived April 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. "Crackdown on Xinjiang Mosques, Religion". Radio Free Asia. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
  22. "Kashgar Uyghurs Pressured To Shave". Radio Free Asia. 20 February 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
  23. Uyghur Human Rights Project
  24. "China Bans Officials, State Employees, Children From Mosques". Uyghur Human Rights Project. 6 February 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
  25. Beijing Review, Volume 32 1989, p. 13.
  26. Gladney 1991, p. 2.
  27. Schein 2000, p. 154.
  28. Gladney 2004, p. 66.
  29. Bulag 2010, p. 104.
  30. Gladney 2005, p. 257.
  31. Gladney 2013, p. 144.
  32. Sautman 2000, p. 79.
  33. Gladney 1996, p. 341.
  34. Lipman 1996, p. 299.
  35. Harold Miles Tanner (2009). China: a history. Hackett Publishing. p. 581. ISBN 0-87220-915-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  36. Gladney 2004, p. 232.
  37. Senate (U S ) Committee on Foreign Relations (2005). State Dept (U S ), ed. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004. Compiled by State Dept (U S ) (illustrated ed.). Government Printing Office. pp. 159–60. ISBN 0160725526. Retrieved 24 April 2014. horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  38. 1 2 Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 383–. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6. The People's Republic, founded in 1949, banned private confessional teaching from the early 1950s to the 1980s, until a more liberal stance allowed religious mosque education to resume and private Muslim schools to open. Moreoever, except in Xinjiang for fear of secessionist feelings, the government allowed and sometimes encouraged the founding of private Muslim schools in order to provide education for people who could not attend increasingly expensive state schools or who left them early, for lack of money or lack of satisfactory achievements.
  39. ALLÈS & CHÉRIF-CHEBBI & HALFON 2003, p. 14.
  40. Senate (U S ) Committee on Foreign Relations (2005). State Dept (U S ), ed. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004. Compiled by State Dept (U S ) (illustrated ed.). Government Printing Office. p. 160. ISBN 0160725526. Retrieved 24 April 2014. horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  41. Szadziewski, Henryk. "Religious Repression of Uyghurs in East Turkestan". Venn Institute. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  42. Beech, Hannah (Aug 12, 2014). "If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival?". TIME magazine. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  43. Bovingdon, Gardner (2013). The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231519419. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  44. Savadove, Bill. 2005. "Faith Flourishes in an Arid Wasteland; Muslim Sect in Ningxia Accepts Beijing's Authority and Is Allowed to Build a Virtual Religious State." South China Morning Post, August 17.
  45. Crane, Brent. 2014. "A Tale of Two Chinese Muslim Minorities"The Diplomat, August 22.
  46. Starr 2004, p. 311.
  47. Starr 2004, p. 113.
  48. Van Wie Davis, Elizabath. "Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China". Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  49. Safran, William (1998). Nationalism and ethnoregional identities in China. Psychology Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-7146-4921-X. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  50. Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 31.
  51. Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, pp. 46-7.
  52. Central Asia Monitor 1993, p. 19.
  53. Mackerras 2003, p. 118.
  54. Svanberg & Westerlund 2012, p. 202.
  55. Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 81.
  56. Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 129.
  57. Svanberg & Westerlund 2012, p. 205.
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 Fischer, Andrew Martin (September 2005). "Close encounters of in Inner-Asian kind: Tibetan–Muslim coexistence and conflict in Tibet, past and present" (PDF). CSRC Working Paper series. Crisis States Research Centre (Working Paper no.68): 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  59. "Tibetans, Muslim Huis clash in China". CNN. 2003-02-23. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
  60. Demick, Barbara (23 June 2008). "Tibetan-Muslim tensions roil China". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  61. Mayaram, Shail (2009). The other global city. Taylor Francis US. p. 75. ISBN 0-415-99194-3. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  62. "Ethnic Clashes Over Gansu Mosque". Radio Free Asia. October 8, 2012.
  63. "Police shut Muslim quarter in Lhasa". CNN. LHASA, Tibet. 28 March 2008. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008.
  64. A.A. (Nov 11, 2012). "The living picture of frustration". The Economist. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  65. Racism and racial discrimination on rise around the world, UN expert warns, UN NEWS CENTRE, March 7, 2006
  66. French Muslim war graves defaced, BBC, April 6, 2008
  67. Vandals target Paris mosque The Guardian – Tuesday February 22, 2005
  68. O., M.; Ennaharonline (13 December 2009). "Desecration of a mosque in France". Ennahar Online English. Hydra – Alger: El Athir For the Press. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  69. "Anti-Muslim graffiti found on French mosque". Associated Press. 13 December 2009. Archived from the original on December 18, 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  70. "Anti-Muslim Graffiti Found on French Mosque". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  71. "France's burqa ban: women are 'effectively under house arrest'". Guardian. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  72. "Charlie Hebdo terror spree spawns anti-Muslim attacks throughout France". New York Daily News. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  73. Pidd, Helen; Harding, Luke (16 November 2011). "German neo-Nazi terrorists had 'hitlist' of 88 political targets". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  74. "The moment a teenage girl was stoned to death for loving the wrong boy". World news. Daily Mail. 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
  75. "Iraq: Amnesty International appalled by stoning to death of Yezidi girl and subsequent killings". Amnesty International. April 27, 2007. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008.
  76. 1 2 "West Bank mosque fire 'was arson'". BBC News. 6 May 2010.
  77. Lappin, Yaakov (10 June 2010), "Mosque vandals 'influenced by flotilla'", The Jerusalem Post, retrieved 13 August 2010
  78. Charu Gupta and Mukul Sharma (July 1996). "Communal constructions: media reality vs real reality". Race & Class 38 (1). doi:10.1177/030639689603800101. Retrieved 2013-02-08
  79. Shani, Ornit (2007). Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism: The Violence in Gujarat. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-521-72753-2.
  80. Corporation, British Broadcasting. May 2005 "Gujarat riot death toll revealed" Check |url= value (help).
  91. Retrieved on 24 May 2007
  92. Taungoo Violence (May 2001): Crackdown on Burmese Muslims (Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper, July 2002)
  93. Birnbaum, Elisa; Goodman, David J. (22 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  94. "Christians in Manila decry mall's Muslim prayer room / The Christian Science Monitor". 2005-01-19. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  95. Islamophobia in Russia - Pravda.Ru
  96. More Racism in Russia
  98. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 20, 2011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  99. "Sri Lanka's Muslims: out in the cold". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 31 July 2007.
  100. Retrieved November 20, 2011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  101. "Ethnic cleansing: Colombo". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 13 April 2007.
  102. Muslim concerns
  103. Sri Lanka: The Northeast: Human rights violations in a context of armed conflict
  104. The New York Times, Tamils Kill 110 Muslims at 2 Sri Lankan Mosques, 5 August 1990
  105. The Times, Tamils kill 116 Muslims, 13 August 1990
  106. Associated Press, Tamil Rebels Order Muslims to Leave City, 17 June 1995
  107. Hindu On Net "A timely and prudent step by the LTTE". Retrieved 2006-04-30.
  108. Bartholomeusz, Tessa J.; De Silva, Chandra Richard (1998). Buddhist Fundamentalism and Minority Identities in Sri Lanka. SUNY Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780791438336.
  111. Mohan, Rohini (2 January 2015). "Sri Lanka's Violent Buddhists". The New York Times.
  114. "BBC News - Sri Lanka crowd attacks Muslim warehouse in Colombo". BBC News. 29 March 2013.
  115. "Ban Halal certification". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 17 February 2013.
  116. "Sri Lanka police stand by as Buddhist extremists attack Muslim-owned store". The Siasat Daily. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  117. "Sri Lanka hardline group calls for halal boycott". BBC. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  119. 1 2 Bandara, Hansani (17 February 2013). "BBSO challenges Mangala equating it to a terrorist outfit". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka).
  120. 1 2 Bastians, Dharisha (15 February 2013). "Mangala says anti-Muslim campaign is 'playing with fire'". Daily FT.
  121. "BBS does not represent entire Sangha". Daily FT. 12 March 2013.
  122. Mohan, Rohini (3 January 2015). "Sri Lanka's Violent Buddhists". Bangalore. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  123. "Sri Lanka: Justice Key to End Anti-Muslim Violence". Human Rights Watch. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  124. "Sri Lanka moderate monk critical of anti-Muslim violence beaten". BBC. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  125. Powers, John (2009). Destroying Mara Forever: Buddhist Ethics Essays in Honor of Damien Keown. Snow Lion Publications. p. 144. ISBN 9781559397889. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  126. Morello, Carol (November 3, 2015). "Kerry pushes quirky, autocratic leader of Turkmenistan on human rights". The Washington Post.
  128. "Tajik President Signs Law Banning Children From Mosques". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. August 3, 2011.
  129. "Tajik Children, Facing Mosque Ban, To Be Offered Islamic Courses". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. June 27, 2011.
  130. "Tajikistan bans youth from mosques and churches". AFP. DUSHANBE. 3 August 2011.
  131. "Tajikistan moves to ban youth from mosques, churches". AFP. July 21, 2011. Archived from the original on 8-3-2011. Check date values in: |archive-date= (help)
  132. "Tajik youth banned from mosques". AFP. DUSHANBE. August 4, 2011. Retrieved 8-3-2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  133. "Tajik teenagers face mosque ban". AFP. DUSHANBE. Aug 3, 2011. Retrieved 8-3-2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  134. "Tajikistan bans youth from mosques". RNW Media. Retrieved 8-3-2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  135. "Tajikistan bans youth from mosques". QHA Агентство Крымские Новости Crimean News Agency. 5 August 2011.
  136. Agencies (July 22, 2011). "Tajikistan bans youth in mosques". The Siasat Daily.
  137. Our Staff Reporter (August 4, 2011). "Tajik youth banned from mosques". AFP. DUSHANBE. Archived from the original on 8-3-2011. Retrieved 8-3-2011. Check date values in: |access-date=, |archive-date= (help)
  138. Mathur, Shivani (04.08.2011). Berning, Sarah, ed. "Youths barred from religious practice in Tajikistan". AFP, Reuters. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  139. Orange, Richard (23 Jun 2011). "Tajik ban on children in mosques could be 'disastrous'". The Telegraph. Almaty.
  140. "Tajikistan bans Muslim youths from praying in mosques". Reuters. DUSHANBE. August 4, 2011.
  141. S., Safa (July 19, 2011). "Tajikistan Mosques: No Kids Allowed". care2.
  142. Sodiqov, Alexander (June 28, 2011). "Bill Banning Children from Mosques Adopted in Tajikistan". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 8 (124). Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  143. Sodiqov, Alexander (3 August 2011). "Bill Banning Children from Mosques Adopted in Tajikistan" (PDF). BI-WEEKLY BRIEFING. Central Asia and Caucasus Analyst. 13 (14): 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on Aug 3, 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  144. Bissenova, Alima (08/03/2011). "3 August 2011 News Digest". CACI Analyst. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  145. "Tajikistan: Authorities ban children and young people from entering mosques". Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich. 2011-06-29.
  146. Goble, Paul (June 2, 2011). "Tajik Officials Have Closed 1500 Mosques Since Start Of 2011". Eurasia Review. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011.
  147. Bayram, Mushfig (19 June 2009). "TAJIKISTAN: Religion Law's worst impact is on Muslims". Forum 18 News Service.
  148. Bayram, Mushfig (25 January 2011). "TAJIKISTAN: When is a mosque not a mosque?". Forum 18 News Service.
  149. Bayram, Mushfig; Kinahan, John (17 March 2011). "TAJIKISTAN: Religious freedom survey, March 2011". Forum 18 News Service.
  150. Bayram, Mushfig (20 January 2009). "TAJIKISTAN: "No rights to organise prayers"". Forum 18 News Service.
  151. Bayram, Mushfig (10 December 2009). "TAJIKISTAN: More than half of religious communities to be "illegal"?". Forum 18 News Service.
  152. Corley, Felix (10 October 2007). "TAJIKISTAN: Authorities demolish mosques, synagogue and churches under threat". Forum 18 News Service.
  153. Bayram, Mushfig (26 May 2011). "TAJIKISTAN: Ban on religious education abroad without state permission to be adopted soon?". Forum 18 News Service.
  154. Sodiqov, Alexander (March 1, 2011). "Mosques and Islamic Education Under Increasing Scrutiny in Tajikistan". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 8 (41). Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  155. Najibullah, Farangis (January 10, 2011). "Tajik Government To Issue List Of Approved Sermon Topics". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty.
  156. Freedom House (11 December 2014). Freedom in the World 2014: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 685–. ISBN 978-1-4422-4707-9.
  157. "Tajikistan". Freedom House. 2012.
  158. "Tajikistan". Freedom House. 2011.
  159. "World Report 2015: Tajikistan Events of 2014". Human Rights Watch.
  160. Kathrin Lenz-Raymann (December 2014). Securitization of Islam: A Vicious Circle: Counter-Terrorism and Freedom of Religion in Central Asia. transcript Verlag. pp. 193–. ISBN 978-3-8394-2904-4.
  161. Bayram, Mushfig (3 March 2014). "TAJIKISTAN: State control of Islam increasing". Forum 18 News Service.
  162. Corley, Felix (18 October 2007). "TAJIKISTAN: Jehovah's Witnesses banned". Forum 18 News Service.
  163. Bayram, Mushfig (8 October 2008). "TAJIKISTAN: Four religious communities reject government claims to OSCE". Forum 18 News Service.
  164. Najibullah, Farangis; Navruzshoh, Zarangez (October 6, 2010). "In Tajikistan, Islamic Names Are The New Fashion". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty.
  165. Trilling, David (8 May 2015). "Tajikistan debates ban on Arabic names as part of crackdown on Islam". The Guardian.
  166. Trilling, David (May 5, 2015). "Tajikistan Mulls Ban on Muslim Names".
  167. Moftah, Lora (May 6, 2015). "Tajikistan Muslim Name Ban: Parliament Considers Forbidding Arabic-Sounding Names Amid Crackdown On Islam". International Business Times.
  168. Putz, Catherine (May 9, 2015). "Tajikistan Considers Ban on Arabic Names". The Diplomat.
  169. Web Desk (May 8, 2015). "After beards, hijabs, Tajikistan wants to ban 'Arabic-sounding' names". The Express Tribune.
  170. Najibullah, Farangis; Ganj, Ganjinai; Kholiqzod, Mirzonabi (April 19, 2015). "Tajiks Weigh Ban On 'Bad Names'". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty.
  171. Hayward, John (10 May 2015). "Tajikistan Considers Banning Arabic Names to Hold Islam at Bay". Breitbart.
  172. Orange, Richard (03 Jun 2011). "Tajik President warns parents of dangers of 'scary names'". The Telegraph. Almaty. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  173. 1 2 Pannier, Bruce (April 1, 2015). "Central Asia's Controversial Fashion Statements". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty.
  174. Pannier, Bruce (2015-11-09). "Witch Hunt In Tajikistan". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty.
  175. RFE/RL's Tajik Service (2015-09-29). "Shuttered Tajik Islamic Party Branded As Terrorist Group". Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  177. Najibullah, Farangis (2015-12-01). "As Tajikistan Limits Islam, Does It Risk Destabilization?". Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  178. Paraszczuk, Joanna (2015-10-29). "Tajikistan's Crackdown On Islam 'Helps IS Recruiters'". Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  179. "Tajikistan shaves 13,000 men's beards to end radicalism". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  184. Kamoludin Abdullaev; Shahram Akbarzaheh (27 April 2010). Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan. Scarecrow Press. pp. 381–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6061-2.
  186. "Muslim teenager stabbed during attack on UK mosque". Arabic News. 10/3/2006. Retrieved 2010-04-04. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  187. Islamic charity fire 'deliberate' BBC News, 6 July 2009
  188. Two-thirds of Muslims consider leaving UK The Guardian – Tuesday July 26, 2005
  189. ICM-Guardian poll Poll of Muslims in the UK. The Guardian – Tuesday July 26, 2005
  190. Spiraling Islamophobia Alienating British Muslims: Report Islam Online – Nov 22 2004
  191. ... And why we urgently need new answers Sarfraz Manzoor – The Guardian – November 30, 2004
  192. Vikram Dood (13 July 2005). "Islamophobia blamed for attack". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  193. "Briefs3-FA investigating claims of racist chanting against Mido". Reuters. 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  194. Williams, Simon (2008-12-04). "Mido fury at FA over repeat of racist taunts at Tyne-Tees clash". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  195. "Two arrested over Mido chanting". BBC Sport. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  196. Vikram Dood (28 January 2010). "Media and politicians 'fuel rise in hate crimes against Muslims'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  197. Dr. Jonathan Githens-Mazer & Dr. Robert Lambert. "Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Hate Crime: a London Case Study" (PDF). University of Exeter. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  198. Jonathan Githens-Mazer & Robert Lambert (28 January 2010). "Muslims in the UK: beyond the hype". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  199. Sian, Katy P. (6 July 2011). "'Forced' conversions in the British Sikh diaspora". South Asian Popular Culture. doi:10.1080/14746681003798060.
  200. Katy P. Sian (4 April 2013). Unsettling Sikh and Muslim Conflict: Mistaken Identities, Forced Conversions, and Postcolonial Formations. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 55–71. ISBN 978-0-7391-7874-4. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  201. 1 2 Linenthal, Edward. The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0-19-516107-6.
  202. 1 2 3 "Arab American Institute 2001 report submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights" (PDF). Arab American Institute.
  203. Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
  204. 'Vibes Made Man Kill... and Confess, Police Say
  205. "Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks". US News. CNN. September 17, 2001. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
  206. 1 2 Muslim Biz Gal Beaten
  207. SRK detained at Newark airport over ‘Khan’ name (Second Lead)
  208. "The world sees Muslims differently: Mahesh Bhatt". The Times Of India. 15 August 2009.
  209. "Taxi driver stabbed after passenger asks if he's Muslim". CNN. August 26, 2010.
  210. Warnings against Quran burning plan – Central & South Asia – Al Jazeera English
  211. "Anti-Islam course in U.S. military part of 'wider problem': activists". Al-Arabiya. 2012-05-14.
  212. "U.S. military embarrassed by Islamophobic lectures". The Hindu. 2012-05-11.
  213. Fawzia Afzal-Khan, Islamophobia in America, CounterPunch, Weekend Edition August 24–26, 2012.
  214. Kolsy, Uzma (August 14, 2012). "There's a crime wave targeting houses of worship, most of them Muslim. Is something sinister at work?". Salon.
  215. Gambino, Lauren (February 11, 2015). "Family of North Carolina shooting victims denounce killings as 'hate crime'". The Guardian.
  216. Kestler D'Amours, Jillian (August 18, 2016). "Man killed in suspected 'anti-Arab hate crime'". al-Jazeera.
  217. Gould, Eric D.; Klor, Esteban F. (2015-07-01). "The Long-run Effect of 9/11: Terrorism, Backlash, and the Assimilation of Muslim Immigrants in the West". The Economic Journal: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12219. ISSN 1468-0297.
  218. Mission to Vietnam Advocacy Day (Vietnamese-American Meet up 2013) in the U.S. Capitol. A UPR report By IOC-Campa.
  220. Airline checks claim of 'Muslim while flying' discrimination CNN November 21, 2006.
  221. Mutiny as passengers refuse to fly until Asians are removedMail on Sunday. 20 August 2006
  222. Exclusive: Malaga Jet mutiny pair's shock at plane ejectionThe Daily Mirror. 23 August 2006.
  223. Removal of men from holiday flight condemnedThe Guardian. 21 August 2006 Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  224. Muslim pilot kicked off jet in terror alertManchester Evening News. 11 August 2006
  225. Muslim pilot reveals shock at being ordered off flightThe Independent. 22 August 2006
  226. "U.S. Muslims outraged after imams kicked off plane", The Washington Post, 22 November 2006.
  227. Probes dismiss imams' racism claim
  228. 9 Muslim Passengers Removed From Jet
  229. Airline Offers Apology Over Detained Muslim Passengers
  230. Lauren Gambino. "Southwest Airlines criticized after incidents involving Middle Eastern passengers". the Guardian.
  231. "Southwest Airlines accused of profiling Muslims". The Economist. 23 November 201 5. Retrieved 25 November 2015. line feed character in |date= at position 16 (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  232. Erika Howsare (2006-12-19). "Anti-Muslim letter goes out to hundreds – not all are amused". Retrieved December 20, 2006.
  233. "Congressman Will Not Apologize for IslamophobiaBy The Associated Press". Associated Press. 2006-12-21. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  234. Patrik Jonsson (2005-07-20). "Raise your right hand and swear to tell the truth... on the Koran?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
  235. Vikram Dood (21 October 2006). "White pupils less tolerant, survey shows". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  236. "Muslim students 'more tolerant'". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  237. 'Muslim Massacre' Creator Tucks Tail, Apologizes, 14 September 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
  238. Muslim Massacre Creator: My Apology Was Fake | GamePolitics
  239. Steinback, Robert (Summer 2011). "Jihad Against Islam". The Intelligence Report (142). Southern Poverty Law Center.
  240. Siemaszko, Corky (February 25, 2011). "Southern Poverty Law Center lists anti-Islamic NYC blogger Pamela Geller, followers a hate group". New York Daily News.
  241. "Stop the Islamization of America (SIOA)". Extremism. Anti-Defamation League. September 14, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  242. New anti-Muslim ads up in NYC subway stations, CBS News, January 9, 2013.
  243. Emily Anne Epstein, New Anti-Islam Ads to Debut This Month, Now With 25% More MTA Disclaimer, The New York Observer, December 7, 2012.
  244. Matt Flegenheimer (Dec 13, 2012). "Controversial Group Plans More Ads in Subway Stations". New York Times.
  245. Murtaza Hussain, Anti-Muslim violence spiraling out of control in America, Al-Jazeera, December 31, 2012.
  246. Wajahat Ali, Death by brown skin, Salon, December 31, 2012.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.