King of the Mountains

"Queen of the Mountains" redirects here. For the 2014 Kyrgyz film, see Queen of the Mountains (film).

The King of the Mountains (KoM; Gran Premio della Montagna or GPM in Italian) is the title given to the best climber in a cycling road race; usually and officially known as the Mountains classification. For women's cycle racing, a similar term, Queen of the Mountains (QoM) is used.

While the title may be given to the rider who achieves the highest position over several designated climbs in a single-day road race, it is more usually applied to stage races (for example, the Grand Tours, Tour de France, Giro d'Italia, Vuelta a España and smaller races like the Tour of California) where points are accumulated over the duration of the whole race.

In the Tour de France, at the top of each significant climb, points are awarded to the riders who are first over the top. The climbs are categorised from 1 (most difficult) to 4 (least difficult) based on their steepness and length. A fifth category, called Hors categorie (outside category) applies to mountains rated even more severe than first category. Similar ratings apply to climbs in the other major Tours.

In the Tour de France, the leader in the mountains competition wears a distinctive polka dot jersey (French: maillot à pois rouge). Although the King of the Mountains was first recognised in the 1933 Tour de France, the distinctive jersey was not introduced until 1975. In the Giro, the King of the Mountains leader wore a green jersey through 2011; beginning in 2012, the jersey will change to blue at the behest of the corporate sponsor of the mountains classification. In the Vuelta several jersey designs have been used, but since 2010 it has been white with blue polka dots.

Alternatively, King of the Mountains also apply to the highest ranked user of activities trackers such as Strava.[1]

Mountains classification winners of the Grand Tours

Two riders have won the "King of the Mountains" in the Tour de France six times: Federico Bahamontes (Spain) and Lucien Van Impe (Belgium), while Richard Virenque (France) holds the record with seven wins. Gino Bartali holds the record for the Giro d'Italia, also with seven wins, while José Luis Laguía has won the Vuelta equivalent five times.

Career triples

No rider has won the "King of the Mountains" in all three Grand Tours in the same year. Only two riders, Federico Bahamontes and Luis Herrera, have won all three competitions in different years. Ten riders have achieved doubles.

Natural doubles

The Tour/Giro double has been achieved by four riders:

The Giro/Vuelta double has been achieved by two riders:

The Tour/Vuelta double has also been achieved by four riders:

Most wins (Grand Tour)

Winners in Grand Tour by year

Winners of mountains classification in Grand Tour:[2]
Year  Tour de France (FRA)  Giro d'Italia (ITA)  Vuelta a España (ESP)
2016  Rafał Majka (POL) (2/2)  Mikel Nieve (ESP)  Omar Fraile (ESP) (2/2)
2015  Chris Froome (GBR)  Giovanni Visconti (ITA)  Omar Fraile (ESP) (1/2)
2014  Rafał Majka (POL) (1/2)  Julián Arredondo (COL)  Luis León Sánchez (ESP)
2013  Nairo Quintana (COL)  Stefano Pirazzi (ITA)  Nicolas Edet (FRA)
2012  Thomas Voeckler (FRA)  Matteo Rabottini (ITA)  Simon Clarke (AUS)
2011  Samuel Sánchez (ESP)  Stefano Garzelli (ITA) (2/2)  David Moncoutié (FRA) (4/4)
2010  Anthony Charteau (FRA)  Matthew Lloyd (AUS)  David Moncoutié (FRA) (3/4)
2009 None[Notes 1]  Stefano Garzelli (ITA) (1/2)  David Moncoutié (FRA) (2/4)
2008 None[Notes 2]  Emanuele Sella (ITA)  David Moncoutié (FRA) (1/4)
2007  Mauricio Soler (COL)  Leonardo Piepoli (ITA)  Denis Menchov (RUS)
2006  Michael Rasmussen (DEN) (2/2)  Juan Manuel Gárate (ESP)  Egoi Martínez (ESP)
2005  Michael Rasmussen (DEN) (1/2)  José Rujano Guillén (VEN)  Joaquim Rodríguez (ESP)
2004  Richard Virenque (FRA) (7/7)  Fabian Wegmann (GER)  Félix Cárdenas (COL) (2/2)
2003  Richard Virenque (FRA) (6/7)  Fredy González (COL) (2/2)  Félix Cárdenas (COL) (1/2)
2002  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (3/3)  Julio Perez Cuapio (MEX)  Aitor Osa (ESP)
2001  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (2/3)  Fredy González (COL) (1/2)  José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (4/4)
2000  Santiago Botero (COL)  Francesco Casagrande (ITA)  Carlos Sastre (ESP)
1999  Richard Virenque (FRA) (5/7)  José Jaime González (COL) (2/2)  José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (3/4)
1998  Christophe Rinero (FRA)  Marco Pantani (ITA)  José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (2/4)
1997  Richard Virenque (FRA) (4/7)  José Jaime González (COL) (1/2)  José Maria Jiménez (ESP) (1/4)
1996  Richard Virenque (FRA) (3/7)  Mariano Piccoli (ITA) (2/2)  Tony Rominger (SUI) (3/3)
1995  Richard Virenque (FRA) (2/7)  Mariano Piccoli (ITA) (1/2)  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) (1/3)
1994  Richard Virenque (FRA) (1/7)  Pascal Richard (SUI)  Luc Leblanc (FRA)
1993  Tony Rominger (SUI) (2/3)  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (5/5)  Tony Rominger (SUI) (1/3)
1992  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (4/5)  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (3/5)  Carlos Hernández (ESP)
1991  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (2/5)  Iñaki Gaston (ESP)  Luis Herrera (COL) (5/5)
1990  Thierry Claveyrolat (FRA)  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) (1/5)  José Martín Farfán (COL)
1989  Gert-Jan Theunisse (NED)  Luis Herrera (COL) (4/5)  Óscar Vargas (COL)
1988  Steven Rooks (NED)  Andrew Hampsten (USA)  Álvaro Pino (ESP)
1987  Luis Herrera (COL) (3/5)  Robert Millar (GBR) (2/2)  Luis Herrera (COL) (2/5)
1986  Bernard Hinault (FRA)  Pedro Muñoz (ESP)  José Luis Laguía (ESP) (5/5)
1985  Luis Herrera (COL) (1/5)  José Luiz Navarro (ESP)  José Luis Laguía (ESP) (4/5)
1984  Robert Millar (GBR) (1/2)  Laurent Fignon (FRA)  Felipe Yanez (ESP) (2/2)
1983  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (8/8)  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (7/8)  José Luis Laguía (ESP) (3/5)
1982  Bernard Vallet (FRA)  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (6/8)  José Luis Laguía (ESP) (2/5)
1981  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (5/8)  Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) (3/3)  José Luis Laguía (ESP) (1/5)
1980  Raymond Martin (FRA)  Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) (2/3)  Juan Fernández (ESP)
1979  Giovanni Battaglin (ITA)  Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) (1/3)  Felipe Yanez (ESP) (1/2)
1978  Mariano Martínez (FRA)  Ueli Sutter (SUI)  Andrés Oliva (ESP) (5/5)
1977  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (4/8)  Faustino Fernández Oviés (ESP)  Pedro Torres (ESP)
1976  Giancarlo Bellini (ITA)  Andrés Oliva (ESP) (4/5)  Andrés Oliva (ESP) (3/5)
1975  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (3/8)  Francisco Galdos (ESP)
 Andrés Oliva (ESP) (2/5)
 Andrés Oliva (ESP) (1/5)
1974  Domingo Perurena (ESP)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (4/4)  José Luis Abilleira (ESP) (2/2)
1973  Pedro Torres (ESP)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (3/4)  José Luis Abilleira (ESP) (1/2)
1972  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (2/8)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (2/4)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP)
1971  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (1/8)  José Manuel Fuente (ESP) (1/4)  Joop Zoetemelk (NED)
1970  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (3/3)  Martin Vandenbossche (BEL)  Agustín Tamames (ESP)
1969  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (2/3)  Claudio Michelotto (ITA)  Luis Ocaña (ESP)
1968  Aurelio Gonzales (ESP) (2/2)  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (1/3)  Francisco Gabica (ESP)
1967  Julio Jiménez (ESP) (6/6)  Aurelio Gonzales (ESP) (1/2)  Mariano Diaz (ESP)
1966  Julio Jiménez (ESP) (5/6)  Franco Bitossi (ITA) (3/3)  Gregorio San Miguel (ESP)
1965  Julio Jiménez (ESP) (4/6)  Franco Bitossi (ITA) (2/3)  Julio Jiménez (ESP) (3/6)
1964  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (9/9)  Franco Bitossi (ITA) (1/3)  Julio Jiménez (ESP) (2/6)
1963  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (8/9)  Vito Taccone (ITA) (2/2)  Julio Jiménez (ESP) (1/6)
1962  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (7/9)  Angelino Soler (ESP)  Antonio Karmany (ESP) (3/3)
1961  Imerio Massignan (ITA) (2/2)  Vito Taccone (ITA) (1/2)  Antonio Karmany (ESP) (2/3)
1960  Imerio Massignan (ITA) (1/2)  Rik Van Looy (BEL)  Antonio Karmany (ESP) (1/3)
1959  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (6/9)  Charly Gaul (LUX) (4/4)  Antonio Suarez (ESP)
1958  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (5/9)  Jean Brankart (BEL)  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (4/9)
1957  Gastone Nencini (ITA) (2/2)  Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) (3/3)  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (3/9)
1956  Charly Gaul (LUX) (3/4)  Charly Gaul (LUX) (2/4)
 Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (2/9)
 Nino Defilippis (ITA)
1955  Charly Gaul (LUX) (1/4)  Gastone Nencini (ITA) (1/2)  Giuseppe Buratti (ITA)
1954  Federico Bahamontes (ESP) (1/9)  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (5/5) Race not held
1953  Jesús Loroño (ESP)  Pasquale Fornara (ESP)
1952  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (4/5)  Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) (2/3)
1951  Raphaël Géminiani (FRA) (1/3)  Louison Bobet (FRA) (2/2)
1950  Louison Bobet (FRA) (1/2)  Hugo Koblet (SUI)  Emilio Rodriguez (ESP) (3/3)
1949  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (3/5)  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (2/5) Race not held
1948  Gino Bartali (ITA) (9/9)  Fausto Coppi (ITA) (1/5)  Bernardo Ruiz (ESP)
1947  Pierre Brambilla (ITA)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (8/9)  Emilio Rodriguez (ESP) (2/3)
1946 Race not held  Gino Bartali (ITA) (7/9)  Emilio Rodriguez (ESP) (1/3)
1945 Race not held  Julián Berrendero (ESP) (3/3)
1944 Race not held
1942  Julián Berrendero (ESP) (2/3)
1941  Fermín Trueba (ESP)
1940  Gino Bartali (ITA) (6/9) Race not held
1939  Sylvere Maes (BEL)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (5/9)
1938  Gino Bartali (ITA) (4/9)  Giovanni Valetti (ITA)
1937  Félicien Vervaecke (BEL) (2/2)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (3/9)
1936  Julián Berrendero (ESP) (1/3)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (2/9)  Salvador Molina (ESP)
1935  Félicien Vervaecke (BEL) (1/2)  Gino Bartali (ITA) (1/9)  Edoardo Molinar (ITA)
1934  René Vietto (FRA)  Remo Bertoni (ITA) Race not held
1933  Vicente Trueba (ESP)  Alfredo Binda (ITA)
  1. Franco Pellizotti's results have been removed, after his biological passport indicated irregular values, but the classification has not been remade yet. Egoi Martínez was ranked second.
  2. The competition was originally won by Austrian cyclist Bernhard Kohl, but after his positive test for and admission to the use of doping, his results have been removed and are considered vacancies in the Tour's record book. Official history of the Tour, see pages 117 and 123

See also


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