Not to be confused with Profit.
For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation).
Prophetic inspiration: Isaiah's Lips Anointed with Fire, by Benjamin West

In religion, a prophet is an individual who has claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people.[1][2] The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy, which transports —at least in Judaism— a message beyond mere pagan soothsaying, augury, divination, or forecasting, and, most prominently in the neviim of the Tanakh, often comprises issues of social justice.

Claims of prophethood have existed in many cultures through history, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, in Ancient Greece, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and many others. Traditionally, prophets are regarded as having a role in society that promotes change due to their messages and actions which can convey the displeasure of God for the behavior of people.

The English word prophet comes from the Greek word προφήτης (profétés) meaning advocate or speaker. In the late 20th century the appellation of prophet has been used to refer to individuals particularly successful at analysis in the field of economics, such as in the derogatory prophet of greed. Alternatively, social commentators who suggest escalating crisis are often called prophets of doom.[3][4]

Abrahamic religions


In Hebrew, the word נָבִיא (navi), "spokesperson", traditionally translates as "prophet".[5] The second subdivision of the Hebrew Bible, TaNaKh (for "Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim"), is devoted to the Hebrew prophets. The meaning of navi is perhaps described in Deuteronomy 18:18,[6] where God said, "...and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." Thus, the navi was thought to be the "mouth" of God. The root nun-bet-alef ("navi") is based on the two-letter root nun-bet which denotes hollowness or openness; to receive transcendental wisdom, one must make oneself "open". Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7.[7]

Malachi, one of the last prophets of Israel, painting by Duccio di Buoninsegna, c. 1310 (Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena Cathedral). “He [Mashiach] will turn the hearts of the parents to their children, and the hearts of the children to their parents” (Malachi 4:6)[8]

In addition to writing and speaking messages from God, Israelite or Jewish nevi'im ("spokespersons", "prophets") often acted out prophetic parables in their life.[9] For example, in order to contrast the people’s disobedience with the obedience of the Rechabites, God has Jeremiah invite the Rechabites to drink wine, in disobedience to their ancestor’s command. The Rechabites refuse, wherefore God commends them.[10][11] Other prophetic parables acted out by Jeremiah include burying a linen belt so that it gets ruined to illustrate how God intends to ruin Judah's pride.[12][13][13][14] Likewise, Jeremiah buys a clay jar and smashes it in the Valley of Ben Hinnom in front of elders and priests to illustrate that God will smash the nation of Judah and the city of Judah beyond repair.[15] God instructs Jeremiah to make a yoke from wood and leather straps and to put it on his own neck to demonstrate how God will put the nation under the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.[16] In a similar way, the prophet Isaiah had to walk stripped and barefoot for three years to illustrate the coming captivity,[17] and the prophet Ezekiel had to lie on his side for 390 days and eat measured food to illustrate the coming siege.[18]

The prophetic assignment is not always portrayed as positive in the Hebrew Bible,[19][20][21] and prophets were often the target of persecution and opposition.[22] God’s personal prediction to Jeremiah, "Attack you they will, overcome you they can't,"[23] was performed many times in the biblical narrative as Jeremiah warned of destruction of those who continued to refuse repentance and accept more moderate consequences.[22][24] In return for his adherence to God’s discipline and speaking God’s words, Jeremiah was attacked by his own brothers,[25] beaten and put into the stocks by a priest and false prophet,[26][27] imprisoned by the king,[28] threatened with death,[29] thrown into a cistern by Judah’s officials,[30] and opposed by a false prophet.[31] Likewise, Isaiah was told by his hearers who rejected his message, "Leave the way! Get off the path! Let us hear no more about the Holy One of Israel!"[20][32] The life of Moses being threatened by Pharaoh is another example.[33]

According to I Samuel 9:9,[34] the old name for navi is ro'eh, רֹאֶה, which literally means "Seer". That could document an ancient shift, from viewing prophets as seers for hire to viewing them as moral teachers. Allen (1971) comments that in the First Temple Era, there were essentially seer-priests, who formed a guild, divined, performed rituals and sacrifices, and were scribes, and then there were canonical prophets, who did none of these (and were against divination) and had instead a message to deliver. The seer-priests were usually attached to a local shrine or temple, such as Shiloh, and initiated others as priests in that priesthood: it was a mystical craft-guild with apprentices and recruitment. Canonical prophets were not organised this way. The similar term ben-navi ("son of the prophet") means "member of a seer-priest guild".

Some examples of prophets in the Tanakh include Abraham, Moses, Miriam, Isaiah, Samuel, Ezekiel, Malachi, and Job. In Jewish tradition Daniel is not counted in the list of prophets.

A Jewish tradition suggests that there were twice as many prophets as the number which left Egypt, which would make 1,200,000 prophets.[35] The Talmud recognizes the existence of 48 male prophets who bequeathed permanent messages to mankind.[35] According to the Talmud there were also seven women who are counted as prophets whose message bears relevance for all generations: Sarah, Miriam, Devorah, Hannah (mother of the prophet Samuel), Abigail (a wife of King David), Huldah (from the time of Jeremiah), and Esther.[35] Rashi points out that Rebecca, Rachel and Leah were also prophets.[36]

Prophets in Judaism are not always Jews.[35] The story of Balaam in Numbers 22 describes a non-Jewish prophet.[37] According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism.

The last nevi'im ("spokespersons", "prophets") mentioned in the Jewish Bible are Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. The Talmud (Sanhedrin 11a) states that Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi were the last prophets, and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" (בת קול, lit. daughter of a voice, "voice of God") exists.


In Christianity a prophet (or seer)[38] is one inspired by God through the Holy Spirit to deliver a message for a specific purpose. God's calling as a prophet is not to elevate an individual for their own glory, but for the glory of God and to turn people to him. Some Christian denominations limit a prophet's message to those only to the entire church congregation and exclude personal messages not intended for the body of believers, but in the Bible on a number of occasions prophets were called to deliver personal messages.[39] The reception of a message is termed revelation and the delivery of the message is termed prophecy.

James Jordan argues that the office of prophet involves more than delivering the direct revelations of God. He writes, "The full meaning of prophet is council member, a member of God's Divine Council . . . Moses, who is an exemplary prophet of the Old Covenant (Numbers 12:6–8) . . . not only received information from the Counsel and passed its decisions onto the people . . . he also actively argued before the Council when he felt it necessary, even 'changing God's mind' on occasion (Exodus 32:7–14, 30–35; Numbers 14:13–19)." [40] In this way, Christ is executing a prophetic office when he intercedes for Christians and ordinary Christians are executing a prophetic office when they reason with God on the behalf of others in prayer, just as Moses interceded and persuaded God on behalf of Israel as part of his prophetic function.

The term prophet is applied to those who receive public or private revelation. Public Revelation, in Catholicism, is part of the Deposit of faith, the revelation of which was completed by Jesus; whereas Private Revelation does not add to the Deposit. The term "deposit of faith" refers to the entirety of Jesus Christ's revelation, and is passed to successive generations in two different forms, sacred scripture (the Bible) and sacred tradition.

Anyone who claims to speak God's words or teach in his name and is not a prophet the Bible terms a false prophet. One test given in the Old Testament in Deuteronomy[41] contains a warning of those who prophecy events which do not come to pass and said they should be put to death. Elsewhere a false prophet may be someone who is purposely trying to deceive, is delusional, under the influence of Satan or is speaking from his own spirit.[42]

A 1542 painting of John the Baptist by Titian

Some Christians who believe in dispensationalism believe prophecy ended along with the rest of the sign gifts shortly after the coming of Jesus, who delivered the "fullness of the law". Within this group, many Protestants believe that prophecy ended with the last of the Hebrew prophets of the Hebrew Bible, leaving a gap of about 400 years between then and the life of Jesus. The majority, including the Eastern Orthodox, allow an exception for John the Baptist as a prophet contemporary with Jesus.

New Testament passages that explicitly discuss prophets existing after the death and resurrection of Christ include Revelation 11:10,[43] Matthew 10:40–41 and 23:34,[44] John 13:20 and 15:20[45] and Acts 11:25–30, 13:1 and 15:32.[46] Christians believe that the Holy Spirit leads people to faith in Jesus and gives them the ability to lead a Christian life and to give gifts (i.e. abilities) to Christians. These may include the charismatic gifts such as prophecy, tongues, healing, and knowledge. Christians holding a view known as cessationism believe these gifts were given only in New Testament times and ceased after the last apostle died.

The Didache gives extensive instruction in how to distinguish between true and false prophets, as well as commands regarding tithes to prophets in the church.[47] Irenaeus, wrote of 2nd-century believers with the gift of prophecy,[48] while Justin Martyr argued in his Dialogue with Trypho that prophets were not found among the Jews in his time, but that the church had prophets.[49] The Shepherd of Hermas describes revelation in a vision regarding the proper operation of prophecy in the church.[50] Eusebius mentions that Quadratus and Ammia of Philadelphia were both prominent prophets following the age of the Twelve Apostles.[51][52] Tertullian, writing of the church meetings of the Montanists (to whom he belonged), described in detail the practice of prophecy in the 2nd-century church.[53]

A number of later Christian saints were claimed to have powers of prophecy, such as Columba of Iona, Saint Malachy or Padre Pio. Marian apparitions like those at Fatima or Kibeho often included prophecies regarding the future of the world as well as of the local areas they occurred in [54]

Prophetic movements in particular can be traced throughout the Christian Church's history, in expressions such as Montanism, Novatianism, Donatism, Franciscanism, Anabaptism, Camisard enthusiasm, Puritanism, Quakerism, Quietism and Pietism.

Some Christians also believe that the title "prophet" encompasses others than those who receive visions from God. A more modern definition of prophet is someone who spreads God's truths. These can be revealed in a number of ways, not only visions.

Some Christian sects recognize the existence of a "modern-day" prophet. One such denomination is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which teaches that God still communicates with mankind through prophecy.[55]


The Quran identifies a number of men as "Prophets of Islam" (Arabic: nabiyy نبي; pl. anbiyaa' أنبياء). Muslims believe such individuals were assigned a special mission by God (Arabic: Allah) to guide humanity. Besides Muhammad, this includes prophets such as Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus).

A depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate period.

Although only twenty-five prophets[56] are mentioned by name in the Qur'an, a hadith (no. 21257 in Musnad Ibn Hanbal)[57] mentions that there were (more or less) 124,000 prophets in total throughout history. Other traditions place the number of prophets at 224,000. Some scholars hold that there are an even greater number in the history of mankind, and only God knows. The Qur'an says that God has sent a prophet to every group of people throughout time, and that Muhammad is the last of the prophets, sent for the whole of humankind.[58] The message of all the prophets is believed to be the same. In Islam, all prophetic messengers are prophets (such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad) though not all prophets are prophetic messengers. The primary distinction is that a prophet is required to demonstrate God's law through his actions, character, and behavior without necessarily calling people to follow him, while a prophetic messenger is required to pronounce God's law (i.e. revelation) and call his people to submit and follow him. Muhammad is distinguished from the rest of the prophetic messengers and prophets in that he was commissioned by God to be the prophetic messenger to all of mankind. Many of these prophets are also found in the texts of Judaism (The Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings; collectively known as the Old Testament to Christians) and Christianity.[59]

While Islam shares the Jewish tradition that the first prophet is Adem (Adam), it differs in that the last prophet is Muhammad, who in Islam is called Seal of the prophets or Khatam an-Nabiyyin. Muslims often refer to Muhammad as the prophet, in the form of a noun.[60][61][62][63] Isa (Jesus) is the result of a virgin birth in Islam as in Christianity, and is regarded as a prophet.[64]

Traditionally, four prophets are believed to have been sent holy books: the Tawrat (Torah) to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) to David, the Injil (Gospel) to Jesus, and the Qur'an to Muhammad; those prophets are considered "messengers" or rasul (Ule al A'zm men al Rusul أولي العزم من الرسل). Other main prophets are considered messengers or Nabi, even if they didn't receive a Book from God. Examples include the messenger-prophet Aaron (Harun), the messenger-prophet Ishmael (Isma'il) and the messenger-prophet Yusuf (Joseph).

Although it offers many incidents from the lives of many prophets, the Qur'an focuses with special narrative and rhetorical emphasis on the careers of the first four of these five major prophets. Of all the figures before Muhammad, Moses is referred to most frequently in the Qur'an. As for the fifth, the Qur'an is frequently addressed directly to Muhammad, and it often discusses situations encountered by him. Direct use of his name in the text, however, is rare. Rarer still is the mention of Muhammad's contemporaries.

Besides the four Holy Books sent by God to the four messengers, Muslims believe that God also had granted scrolls (Suhuf) to Abraham (Suhuf-e-Ibrahim) and Moses (Books of Moses).

Unlike the majority of Muslims, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community does not believe that messengers and prophets are different individuals. They interpret the Quranic terms of "warner," (Nadhir) "prophet," and "messenger" as referring to different roles that the same divinely-appointed individuals perform. Ahmadiyya Muslims distinguish only between law-bearing prophets and non law-bearing ones. They are the only Muslim group who believe that although law bearing prophet-hood ended with Muhammad, non law-bearing prophet-hood continues. In this capacity, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) as a prophet of God, and also believes him to be the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi of the latter days.[65]


Main article: Manifestation of God
Moses with the tablets of the Ten Commandments, painting by Rembrandt (1659)

The Bahá'í Faith refers to what are commonly called prophets as "Manifestations of God" who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. Bahá'ís believe that God expresses this will at all times and in many ways, including through a series of divine messengers referred to as "Manifestations of God" or "divine educators".[66] In expressing God's intent, these Manifestations are seen to establish religion in the world. Thus they are seen as an intermediary between God and humanity.[67]

The Manifestations of God are not seen as incarnations of God, and are also not seen as ordinary mortals. Instead, the Bahá'í concept of the Manifestation of God emphasizes simultaneously the humanity of that intermediary and the divinity in the way they show forth the will, knowledge and attributes of God; thus they have both human and divine stations.[67]

In addition to the Manifestations of God, there are also minor prophets. While the Manifestations of God, or major prophets, are compared to the Sun (which produces its own heat and light), minor prophets are compared to the Moon (which receives its light from the sun). Moses, for example, is taught as having been a Manifestation of God and his brother Aaron a minor prophet. Moses spoke on behalf of God, and Aaron spoke on behalf of Moses (Exodus 4:14-17).[68] Other Jewish prophets are considered minor prophets, as they are considered to have come in the shadow of the dispensation of Moses to develop and consolidate the process he set in motion.

Prophetic claims in movements deriving from Abrahamic religions

In modern times the term "prophet" can be somewhat controversial. Many Christians with Pentecostal or charismatic beliefs believe in the continuation of the gift of prophecy and the continuation of the role of prophet as taught in Ephesians 4.[69] The content of prophecies can vary widely. Prophecies are often spoken as quotes from God. They may contain quotes from scripture, statements about the past or current situation, or predictions of the future. Prophecies can also 'make manifest the secrets' of the hearts of other people, telling about the details of their lives. Sometimes, more than one person in a congregation will receive the same message in prophecy, with one giving it before another.

Other movements claim to have prophets. In France, Michel Potay says he received a revelation, called The Revelation of Arès, dictated by Jesus in 1974, then by God in 1977. He is considered a prophet by his followers, the Pilgrims of Arès.


A number of modern catholic saints have been claimed to have powers of prophecy, such as Padre Pio [70] and Alexandrina Maria da Costa.[71]

In addition to this many modern Marian apparitions included prophecies in them about the world and about the local areas. The Fatima apparition in 1917 included a prophecy given by Mary to three children, that on October 13, 1917 there would be a great miracle for all to see at Fatima, and on that day tens of thousands of people headed to Fatima to see what would happen including newspaper journalists. Many witnesses, including journalists, claimed to see the sun 'dance' in the sky in the afternoon of that day, exactly as the visionaries had predicted several months before.[72] The Kibeho apparition in Rwanda in the 1980s included many prophecies about great violence and destruction that was coming, and the Rwandan genocide only ten years later was interpreted by the visionaries as the fulfillment of these prophecies [73]

Several miracles and a vision of the identity of the last 112 Popes were attributed to Saint Malachy, the Archbishop of Armagh (1095 – 1148).

Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses do not consider any single person in their modern-day organization to be a prophet.[74] Their literature has referred to their organization collectively as God's "prophet" on earth; this is understood, however, in the sense of declaring their interpretation of God's judgments from the Bible along with God's guidance of His Holy Spirit.[75][76] Their publishing company, Watch Tower, and official position magazine, The Watchtower, have asserted: "Ever since The Watchtower began to be published in July 1879 it has looked ahead into the future... No, The Watchtower is no inspired prophet, but it follows and explains a Book of prophecy the predictions in which have proved to be unerring and unfailing till now. The Watchtower is therefore under safe guidance. It may be read with confidence, for its statements may be checked against that prophetic Book."[77] They also claim that they are God's one and only true channel to mankind on earth, and used by God for this purpose.

They have made many eschatological forecasts, some of which have led people (including followers) to incorrect assumptions. One example is The Watchtower's assertions that the end of the "Gentile times" or "times of the nations" would occur in 1914; even prominent Watch Tower representatives such as A. H. Macmillan incorrectly concluded and overstated their expectations. As a result, The Watchtower has acknowledged that Jehovah's Witnesses "have made mistakes in their understanding of what would occur at the end of certain time periods."[78] Concurrently with these exceptions, Jehovah's Witnesses in their literature and assemblies have taught their leadership was personally chosen by Jesus Christ in 1919 (a prophetic year in Jehovah's Witnesses eschatology) and that they are "God's sole channel on earth," and "Jehovah's spirit directed organization".

Founders of Christian sects or movements

Latter Day Saint

A portrait of Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith, who established the Church of Christ in 1830, is considered a prophet by members of the Latter Day Saint movement, of which The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is the largest denomination. Additionally, many churches within the movement believe in a succession of modern prophets (accepted by Latter Day Saints as "prophets, seers, and revelators") since the time of Joseph Smith. Thomas S. Monson is believed to be the current prophet of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.


Baptist preacher William Miller is credited with beginning the mid-19th century North American religious movement now known as Adventism. He announced a Second Coming, resulting in the Great Disappointment.

Seventh-day Adventist

The Seventh-day Adventist Church, established in 1863, believes Ellen G. White, one of the church's founders, was given the spiritual gift of prophecy.

Branch Davidians

The Branch Davidians sect evolved from the Seventh-Day Adventists Church. David Koresh, who died in the well-known Waco Siege in 1993, in 1983 claimed to be their final prophet and "the Son of God, the Lamb".

Other Christian sects or movements


The Ahmadiyya movement in Islam believes that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was a non law-bearing Prophet, who claimed to be a fulfillment of the various Islamic prophecies regarding the spiritual second advent of Jesus of Nazareth near the end times.[83]

Judaic messianism

Nathan of Gaza was a theologian and author who became famous as a prophet for the alleged messiah, Sabbatai Zevi.

Other religions


The Hindu concept of Rishis is similar to the concept of prophets. The Sanskrit word Rishi is loosely translated into English as "seer" (a prophet, a man who can foresee the future). Hinduism recognizes and reveres thousands of Rishis, who can be thought of as the collective founders of the Hindu religion over many millennia. Of these, special importance is given to the Saptarshi (the Seven Sages), widely regarded as patriarchs of the Hindu religion, whose listing is different according to different texts. The Saptarshi and their clans are believed to have composed the hymns of the four Vedas by entering into communion with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit through meditation. For instance, Rigveda 1.1 is attributed to Rishi Madhucchandā Vaishwāmitra (i.e. Madhucchandā of the clan of Vishwamitra). Most Rishikās were male, but some were female too. Lopamudra is the author of one hymn in the Rigveda, and Gargi Vachaknavi is described in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as a highly respected woman in the field of Brahmajñāna. Apart from the Vedas, various Rishis are also credited with composing the several Smriti texts, like Veda Vyasa who composed the Mahābhārata.

Ifa and other African traditional religions

Main article: Traditional African religion, Ifá, Religion in Africa

Divination remains an important aspect of the lives of the people of contemporary Africa, especially amongst the usually rural, socially traditionalistic segments of its population. In arguably its most influential manifestation, the system of prophecy practiced by the Babalawos and Iyanifas of the historically Yoruba regions of West Africa have bequeathed to the world a corpus of fortune-telling poetic methodologies so intricate that they have been added by UNESCO to its official intangible cultural heritage of the World list.


Tenrikyo's prophet, Nakayama Miki, is believed by Tenrikyoans to have been a messenger of God.[84]


Native Americans

Native American Great Peacemaker (Deganawidah) co-founded the Haudenosaunee league in pre-Columbian time. In retrospect, his prophecy of the boy seer could appear to refer to the conflict between natives and Europeans (white serpent).

From 1805 until the Battle of Tippecanoe that falsified his predictions in 1811, the "Shawnee prophet" Tenskwatawa lead an Indian alliance to stop Europeans to take more and more land going west. He reported "visions" he had. He is said to have accurately predicted a solar eclipse. His brother Tecumseh re-established the alliance for Tecumseh's War, that ended with the latter's death in 1813. Tecumseh fought together with British forces that, in the area of the Great Lakes, occupied essentially today's territory of Canada.

20 years later (1832), Wabokieshiek, the "Winnebago Prophet", after whom Prophetstown has been named, (also called "White Cloud") claimed that British Fources would support the Indians in the Black Hawk War against the United States as 20 years earlier (based on "visions"). They did not, and no longer he was considered a "prophet".

In 1869, the Paiute Wodziwob founded the Ghost Dance movement. The dance rituals were an occasion to announce his visions of an earthquake that would swallow the whites. He seems to have died in 1872.

The Northern Paiute Wovoka claimed he had a vision during the solar eclipse of January 1, 1889, that the Paiute dead would come back and the whites would vanish from America, provided the natives performed Ghost Dances. This idea spread among other Native American peoples. The government were worried about a rebellion and sent troops, which lead to the death of Sitting Bull and to the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890.

Other individuals

Other people throughout history have been described as prophets in the sense of foretelling the future (as opposed to relaying a religious message). Examples of such prophets include:

See also


  1. prophet – definition of prophet by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia
  2. prophet – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  3. "Ruff sees more rough times ahead – MarketWatch". Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  4. Rushe, Dominic (2008-10-26). "Nouriel Roubini: I fear the worst is yet to come – Times Online". The Times. London. Retrieved 2009-04-09. ...after making a series of uncannily accurate predictions about the global meltdown, Roubini has become the prophet of his age...
  5. p.1571, Alcalay. A more accepted translation of this Hebrew word is derived from an Akkadian word "nabu," meaning to call. The Hebrew "navi" has a passive sense and means "the one who has been called" (see HALOT, p.661).
  6. Deuteronomy 18:18
  7. Genesis 20:7
  8. cf. “If anyone comes to me and does not hate father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters--yes, even their own life--such a person cannot be my [Christ] disciple.” (Luke 14:26)
  9. All the Parables of the Bible, Herbert Lockyer, Zondervan, 1963.
  10. Jeremiah 35:13–16, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  11. Commentary on Jeremiah 35, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  12. Jeremiah 13, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  13. 1 2 Commentary on Jeremiah 13, Jeremiah, The Anchor Bible, Doubleday, 1984
  14. Jeremiah, Lamentations, Tremper Longman, Hendrickson Publishers, 2008.
  15. Jeremiah 19, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  16. Jeremiah 27–28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  17. Isaiah 20, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  18. Ezekiel 4, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  19. Commentary on Jeremiah, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  20. 1 2 Isaiah (Commentary), John Goldingay, Hendrickson, 2001
  21. Commentary on Isaiah 6:8–13, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  22. 1 2 ’’Jeremiah (Prophet)’’, The Anchor Bible Dictionary Volume 3, Doubleday, 1992
  23. Jeremiah 1:19, The Anchor Bible, Doubleday, 1984
  24. ’’Jeremiah, Lamentations’’, F.B. Huey, Broadman Press, 1993
  25. Jeremiah 12:6, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  26. Jeremiah 20:1–4, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  27. The NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1995, p. 1501
  28. Jeremiah 37:18, Jeremiah 38:28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  29. Jeremiah 38:4, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  30. Jeremiah 38:6, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  31. Jeremiah 28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  32. Isaiah 30:11, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  33. Exodus 2, Exodus 10:28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004
  34. 1 Samuel 9:9, Hebrew – English Bible
  35. 1 2 3 4 Prophets and Prophecy
  36. Rashi on Genesis 29:34.
  37. Numbers 24:1–24:18
  38. 1 Samuel 9:9, King James Bible
  39. Matthew 14:1–7, 2 Kings 3:11
  41. Deuteronomy 18:21–22
  42. Ezekiel 13:3, "Thus saith the Lord GOD; Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing!"
  43. Revelation 11:10
  44. Gospel of Matthew 10:40–41, 23:34
  45. Gospel of John 13:20, 15:20
  46. Acts of the Apostles 11:25–30, 13:1, 15:32
  47. Early Christian Writings: Didache (Chapters 11–15)
  48. Against Heresies, Book V Chapter 6.1
  49. Early Christian Writings: Dialogue with Trypho (Chapter LXXXII)
  50. Early Christian Writings: Shepherd of Hermas (Eleventh Commandment)
  51. Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 37.1
  52. Ecclesiastical History, Book V, Chapter 17.2–4
  53. A Treatise on the Soul, Chapter 9
  54., retrieved June 10th 2016
  55. Whether or not the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is considered a Christian denomination is subject to dispute, see Mormonism and Christianity.
  56. Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002-06-18). Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. Comparative Islamic studies. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8264-4957-3. Retrieved 2011-01-29. There are 25 prophets mentioned by name in the Quran [...] Among those mentioned by name are: Adam (mentioned 25 times by name), Idris (1), Noah (43), Hud (7), Salih (10), Abraham (69), Ishmael (12), Isaac (17), Jacob (16), Lot (27), Joseph (27), Shuayb (11), Job (4), Dhu al-Kifl (2), Moses (137), Aaron (20), David (16), Solomon (17), Elijah (1), Elisha (2), Jonah (4), Zechariah (7), John (5), Jesus (25), Muhammad (4).
  57. Number Of Prophets & Messengers
  58. Quran 16:36
  59. The Bible; containing both the Old and New Testaments (see Biblical narratives and the Qur'an)
  60. Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. p. 1111
  61. Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, William A. Graham, William Albert Graham – 1993, p93
  62. The militia – Page 100, James B. Whisker – 1992 "The work of Mohammed (569–632), commonly called the Prophet, the Koran was revealed in a series of visions over a period of many years beginning in 610"
  63. Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz’ 26 (Part 26): Al-Ahqaf 1 To Az-Zariyat 30, Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman – 2009
  64. Quran 3:45
  65. Claim to Mahdi and Messiah
  66. Hutter, Manfred (2005). "Bahā'īs". In Ed. Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 737–740. ISBN 0-02-865733-0.
  67. 1 2 Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings". Bahá'í Studies. monograph 9: 1–38.
  68. Exodus 4:14-17
  69. Ephesians 4
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  74. "The Watchtower, Number 7, Vol. XCIII". 1972-04-01. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  75. Keep Yourselves in God's Love, 2008 Watch Tower, page 209, "Today, prophesying would apply to any Bible-based teaching that a Christian minister does."
  76. “Would That All Were Prophets!”, Awake!, Watch Tower, June 8, 1986, page 9, "True Christians are prophets in that they teach others God’s Word"
  77. The Watchtower 1 January 1969
  78. Reasoning From the Scriptures p.136
  79. Weaver, C. Douglas (2000). The Healer-Prophet: William Marrion Branham (A study of the Prophetic in American Pentecostalism). Mercer University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0253202215.
  80. Larson, Bob (2004). Larson's Book of World Religions and Alternative Spirituality. Tyndale House Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 0-8423-6417-X.
  81. PCG Information, 'That Prophet'
  82. The Riddle of That Prophet
  83. "My Claim to Promised Messiahship". Review of Religions.
  84. oyasama
  85. "God's Latest Prophet to Deliver the New Message" September 7, 2011 Retrieved September 20, 2012
Wikisource has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Prophet.
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