Statutory rape

This article is about the crime. For the Black Dahlia Murder song released on the album Miasma, see Miasma (album).

In some common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is sexual activity in which one of the individuals is below the age required to legally consent to the behavior.[1] Although it usually refers to adults engaging in sex with minors under the age of consent,[1] it is a generic term, and very few jurisdictions use the actual term statutory rape in the language of statutes.[2]

Different jurisdictions use many different statutory terms for the crime, such as sexual assault (SA), rape of a child (ROAC), corruption of a minor (COAM), unlawful sex with a minor (USWAM),[3] carnal knowledge of a minor (CKOAM), unlawful carnal knowledge (UCK), sexual battery[4] or simply carnal knowledge.

In statutory rape, overt force or threat is usually not present. Statutory rape laws presume coercion, because a minor or mentally handicapped adult is legally incapable of giving consent to the act.

The term statutory rape generally refers to sex between an adult and a sexually mature minor past the age of puberty. Sexual relations with a prepubescent child, generically called child sexual abuse or molestation, is typically treated as a more serious crime.

Main article: Age of consent

In many jurisdictions, the age of consent is interpreted to mean mental or functional age.[5][6] As a result, victims can be of any chronological age if their mental age makes them unable to consent to a sexual act.[5][6][7][8] Other jurisdictions, such as Kentucky, eliminate the legal concept of "mental age" and treat sexting with a mentally incapacitated person as a specific crime.

Consensual teenage sex in the United States is common. A 1995 study revealed that, by the age of sixteen, 50% of U.S. teenagers have had sexual intercourse. In fact, it is estimated that there are more than 7 million incidents of statutory rape every year. However, it is clear that most incidents are not prosecuted and do not lead to arrests and convictions.[9] Laws vary[10] in their definitions of statutory rape. It is generally intended to punish heinous cases of an adult taking sexual advantage of a minor. Thus, many jurisdictions prohibit allowing a juvenile to be tried as an adult under this law (most jurisdictions have separate provisions for child molestation or forcible rape which can be applied to juveniles and for which a minor can be tried as an adult). Some jurisdictions also specify a minimum difference in age in order for the offense to be applicable. Under such terms, if the adult is, for instance, less than three years older than the minor, no crime has been committed or the penalty is far less severe. These are called "Romeo and Juliet" clauses.

Rationale of statutory rape laws

Statutory rape laws are based on the premise that until a person reaches a certain age, that individual is legally incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse. Thus, the law assumes, even if he or she willingly engages in sexual intercourse, the sex is not consensual.[11] Critics argue that an age limit cannot be used to determine the ability to consent to sex, since a young teenager might possess enough social sense to make informed and mature decisions about sex, while some adults might never develop the ability to make mature choices about sex, as even many mentally healthy individuals remain naive and easily manipulated throughout their lives.[12]

Another rationale comes from the fact that minors are generally economically, socially, and legally unequal to adults. By making it illegal for an adult to have sex with a minor, statutory rape laws aim to give the minor some protection against adults in a position of power over the youth.[2]

Another argument presented in defense of statutory rape laws relates to the difficulty in prosecuting rape (against a victim of any age) in the courtroom. Because forced sexual intercourse with a minor is considered a particularly heinous form of rape, these laws relieve the prosecution of the burden to prove lack of consent. This makes conviction more frequent in cases involving minors.[12]

The original purpose of statutory rape laws was to protect young, unwed females from males who might impregnate them and not take responsibility by providing support for the child.[12] In the past, the solution to such problems was often a "shotgun wedding", a forced marriage called for by the parents of the girl in question. This rationale aims to preserve the marriageability of the girl and to prevent unwanted teenage pregnancy.[11]

Historically, a man could defend himself against statutory rape charges by proving that his victim was already sexually experienced prior to their encounter (and thus not subject to being corrupted by the defendant).[12] A requirement that the victim be "of previously chaste character" remained in effect in some U.S. states until as late as the 1990s.[13]

Romeo and Juliet laws

Often, teenage couples engage in sexual conduct as part of an intimate relationship. This may occur before either participant has reached the age of consent, or after one has but the other has not. In the latter case, in most jurisdictions, the person who has reached the age of consent is guilty of statutory rape. In some jurisdictions (such as California), if two minors have sex with each other, they are both guilty of engaging in unlawful sex with the other person.[14][15] The act itself is prima facie evidence of guilt when one participant is incapable of legally consenting.

Some jurisdictions have passed so-called "Romeo and Juliet laws", which serve to reduce or eliminate the penalty of the crime in cases where the couple's age difference is minor and the sexual contact would not have been rape if both partners were legally able to give consent. Such laws vary, but can include:

Such laws generally apply to a couple whose ages differ by less than a specified number of years. They are, however, generally unavailable in any case where the older participant has an authoritative position over the younger regardless of relative age, such as a teacher/student, coach/player or guardian/ward relationship, or if any physical force was used or serious physical injury resulted. This is normally accomplished by making acts involving these circumstances separate crimes to which the "Romeo and Juliet" defense does not apply.

An example is Texas Penal Code, Section 22.011(e). It provides an affirmative defense to a charge of sexual assault if all of the following apply:

A similar affirmative defense exists in the Texas Penal Code for the related crime of "continuous sexual abuse of a young child or children". Any defense under either law, however, does not apply to the separate crime of "improper educator/student relationship" (sexual relations between a licensed teacher or school employee and a student of the same school), or for "aggravated sexual assault" (the forcible rape statute of Texas law).

Gender differences in statutory rape

Female and male statutory rape

Until the late 1970s, sex involving an adult female and an underage male was often ignored by the law, due to the belief that it is often sexual initiation for the younger male.[16] This view is still very prevalent in modern times, as it is glamorized by the media and there still appears to be a gender bias in courts on teacher-student sexual relationships (though these relationships are illegal regardless of age).[17] A Star-Ledger analysis reported that 54% of male suspects are sent to prison vs 44% of female suspects, with an average of 2.4 years vs 1.6 years respectively.[18] A lot of the time it is a parent who comes forward about the relationship and results in the underage male being very upset at the report as they view the woman as a trophy.[19] The majority of men who, as minors, had sex with women hold a positive reaction, with a third of them being neutral and less than 5% being negative toward it. While in contrast, the women who were involved with adult men when they were minors, 44.4% viewed these relationships as predominantly positive.[20]

In at least one case, the U.S. courts have held that male victims of rape may be liable for child support for any children resulting from the crime. In County of San Luis Obispo v. Nathaniel J. the 15-year-old victim Nathaniel J. discussed a future relationship with the perpetrator (a 34-year-old woman) and stated that the sex was "mutually agreeable". Given this testimony, the California Court of Appeal held Nathaniel J. financially responsible for his child. The court stated the boy was "not an innocent victim" of the sexual intercourse.[21][22] In another case of a 21-year-old female who raped an 11-year-old male, the woman was convicted and sentenced to six months with suspended time; the sentence appeared to criminalize the victim, as the judge said, "Having read everything before me, it was quite clear he was a mature 11-year-old and you were an immature 20-year-old so that narrows the arithmetic age gap between you."[23]

There have also been high-profile cases in which the adult female is in a position of responsibility over the boy; these include Mary Kay Letourneau, Debra Lafave, Pamela Rogers Turner and Jennifer Fichter.[24][25]

Same-sex statutory rape

In some jurisdictions, relationships between adults and minors are penalized more when both are the same sex. For example, in Kansas, if someone 18 or older has sex with a minor no more than four years younger, a Romeo and Juliet law limits the penalty substantially. As written, however, this law did not apply to same-sex couples, leaving them subject to higher penalties than opposite-sex couples for the same offense. Resulting in higher statutory rape convictions, larger fines, and sex offender registration for teens in the LGBTQ community[26]

The Kansas law was successfully challenged as being in conflict with the U.S. Supreme Court rulings Lawrence v. Texas and Romer v. Evans.[27] The Lawrence precedent did not directly address equal protection, but its application in the case of State v. Limon (2005) invalidated age of consent laws that discriminate based on sexual orientation in Kansas.[28][29]

Specific laws depending on countries

United Kingdom

The legal framework of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 differentiates between sexual contact with children under 13, and sexual contact with those at least 13 but under 16.[30]

Sexual penetration of a child under 13 is termed Rape of a child under 13, an offense created by section 5 of the Act, which reads:

(1) Rape of a child under 13

A person commits an offence if—

(a) he intentionally penetrates the vagina, anus or mouth of another person with his penis, and
(b) the other person is under 13.

The Explanatory Notes read: "Whether or not the child consented to this act is irrelevant".[31] The term 'rape' therefore is used only with regard to children under 13; consensual sexual penetration of a child above 13 but under 16 is defined as 'Sexual activity with a child', and punished less severely (section 9, which requires the perpetrator to be 18 or over). A minor can also be guilty for sexual contact with another minor (section 13), but the Explanatory Notes state that decisions whether to prosecute in cases where both parties are minors are to be taken on a case by case basis.[32] The Crown Prosecution guidelines state "[I]t is not in the public interest to prosecute children who are of the same or similar age and understanding that engage in sexual activity, where the activity is truly consensual for both parties and there are no aggravating features, such as coercion or corruption."[33]

Northern Ireland follows a similar legal framework, under the Sexual Offences (Northern Ireland) Order 2008.[34] This Act overhauled the sexual offenses laws in Northern Ireland, and fixed the age of consent at 16 in line with the rest of the UK; prior to this Act it was 17.

In Scotland, the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 also fixes an age of consent of 16, and is also two tiered, treating children under 13 differently than children 13–16. Section 18, Rape of a young child, applies to children under 13.[35] Before the enactment of this Act, Scotland had very few statutory sexual offenses, with most of its sexual legislation being defined at common law, which was increasingly seen as a problem.[36] The creation of a two tier age limit was deemed very important during the drafting of the Act.[37]


The law reads in Danish:[38]

§ 222. Den, som har samleje med et barn under 15 år, straffes med fængsel indtil 8 år, medmindre forholdet er omfattet af § 216, stk. 2. Ved fastsættelse af straffen skal det indgå som en skærpende omstændighed, at gerningsmanden har skaffet sig samlejet ved udnyttelse af sin fysiske eller psykiske overlegenhed.

Stk. 2. Har gerningsmanden skaffet sig samlejet ved tvang eller fremsættelse af trusler, kan straffen stige til fængsel indtil 12 år.

Which translates roughly to:

§ 222. One who has sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 15, shall be punished by imprisonment for up to 8 years, unless the situation is covered by § 216 paragraph 2. In determining the penalty, it shall be an aggravating circumstance if the perpetrator has gained intercourse by exploiting their physical or mental superiority.

Paragraph. 2. If the offender has gained intercourse by coercion or threats, the penalty may increased to imprisonment for up to 12 years.

The content of § 216 paragraph 2 specifies the penalty can be increased to 12 years, if the child is under the age of 12.

The Netherlands

Article 244
A person who, with a person younger than twelve years, performs indecent acts comprising or including sexual penetration of the body, will be punished with imprisonment up to twelve years or a fine up to that of the fifth category.

Article 245
A person who, out of wedlock, with a person who has reached the age of twelve but has not reached sixteen years, performs indecent acts comprising or including sexual penetration of the body is liable to a term of imprisonment up to eight years or a fine up to that of the fifth category.

Note on marriage:

Notes on the Dutch law:

Current issues

While there is broad support for the concept of statutory rape as criminal in the United States, there is substantial debate on how vigorously such cases should be pursued and under what circumstances.

In May 2006, the Irish Supreme Court found the existing statutory rape laws to have been unconstitutional, since they prevented the defendant from entering a defense (e.g., that he had reasonably believed that the other party was over the age of consent).[40] This has led to the release of persons held under the statutory rape law and has led to public demands that the law be changed by emergency legislation being enacted. On June 2, 2006 the Irish Supreme Court upheld an appeal by the state against the release of one such person, "Mr. A". Mr. A was rearrested shortly afterwards to continue serving his sentence.[41]

In the aftermath of the December 2007 disclosure by then-16-year-old actress Jamie Lynn Spears, the sister of pop star Britney Spears, that the father of her baby is 18-year-old Casey Aldridge,[42] there was talk of the prosecution of Aldridge for statutory rape, which could be done under current Louisiana state law.[43][44] Prosecution in the case was never pursued.

See also


  1. 1 2 "Statutory Rape Known to Law Enforcement" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  2. 1 2 "State Legislators' Handbook for Statutory Rape Issues" (PDF). U.S Department of Justice - Office for Victims of Crime. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  3. Cieply, Michael (11 October 2009). "In Polanski Case, '70s Culture Collides With Today". The New York Times.
  4. "794.011 Sexual battery". Official Internet Site of The Florida Legislature. The Florida Legislature. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  5. 1 2 People vs Andaya : 126545 : Synopsis/Syllabi
  6. 1 2 "G.R. No. 126545". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  7. Browse Caselaw
  8. "G.R. No. 126921". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  9. "No Child Left Behind Bars: The Need To Combat Cruel and Unusual Punishment of State Statutory Rape Laws | Brooklyn Law School Practicum". Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  10. "Statutory Rape Laws by State". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  11. 1 2 "Can Statutory Rape Laws Be Effective in Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy?". Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  12. 1 2 3 4 "The pros and cons of statutory rape laws". Cable News Network. 2004-02-13. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  13. C. Cocca, "Jailbait: The politics of statutory rape laws in the United States." SUNY Press (2004).
  14. "California Code". Findlaw. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  15. Manson, Pamela (2006-12-06). "Girl, 13, charged as sex offender and victim". Denver Post.
  16. Gartner, Richard B. 1999. Betrayed as Boys: Psychodynamic Treatment of Sexually Abused Men. NY:Guildford Press
  17. "Hot For Teacher: Gender Bias in Sentencing of Teachers that have Sex with Their Students - Campbell Law Observer". Campbell Law Observer. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  18. "In teacher-student sex cases, men average longer jail terms, newspaper analysis reveals". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  19. "Many still don't see women as sex predators". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  20. Impacts and reactions to Statutory Rape
  21. "County of San Luis Obispo v. Nathaniel J. (1996)".
  22. Jones, Ruth (2001–2002). "Inequality from Gender-Neutral Laws: Why Must Male Victims of Statutory Rape Pay Child Support for Children Resulting from Their Victimization". Georgia Law Review. 36.
  23. Webb, Sam (5 October 2015). "Babysitter who had sex with boy spared jail after dad says his son is 'sex mad'".
  24. "Jail term for underage sex woman". BBC News. 2006-12-04. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  25. "Teacher jailed for seducing boy". BBC News. 2005-08-15. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  26. Higdon, Michael J. (2008-02-23). "Queer Teens and Legislative Bullies: The Cruel and Invidious Discrimination Behind Heterosexist Statutory Rape Laws". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1097097. ISSN 1556-5068.
  27. 85898 - State v. Limon - Luckert - Kansas Supreme Court
  28. FindLaw's Writ - Grossman: The Kansas Supreme Court Rights a Wrong, Ruling that the State Cannot Penalize a Teenager for Being Gay.
  29. "A table of worldwide ages of consent, including US states". Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  30. "Sexual Offences Act 2003". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  31. Sexual Offences Act 2003 - Explanatory Notes
  32. Sexual Offences Act 2003 - Explanatory Notes
  33. "Sexual Offence Legislation: Rape and Sexual Offences: Legal Guidance: Crown Prosecution Service". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  34. The Sexual Offences (Northern Ireland) Order 2008
  35. "Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  36. see the Report on Rape and Other Sexual Offences, by the Scottish Law Commission, page 2
  37. see the Report on Rape and Other Sexual Offences, by the Scottish Law Commission, pages 63 - 66
  38. "Straffeloven - Bekendtgørelse af straffeloven -". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  39. See Article 1:31 Minimum age (...) "The Minister of Justice may, for compelling reasons, grant dispensation from the requirement mentioned in paragraph 1."
  40. "Statutory rape law ruled unconstitutional". RTÉ News. 2006-05-23.
  41. "McDowell confident ruling will foil offenders". RTÉ News. 2006-06-02.
  42. "World Exclusive: Jamie Lynn Spears — I'm Pregnant". OKMagazine. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
  43. Jonathan Turley (2007-12-21). "Spears Pregnancy May Result in Television Special Rather than Criminal Charges". Retrieved 2007-12-22.
  44. "Was Jamie Lynn a victim of statutory rape?". MSNBC. 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
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