Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016)

Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016)
Part of the Battle of Aleppo (Syrian Civil War) and the Russian military intervention in Syria
Date15 November 2016 – present
(2 weeks and 5 days)
LocationAleppo, Aleppo Governorate, Syria


  • Army captures 60% of the rebel-held part of Aleppo[1]
  • 50,000+ civilians fled east Aleppo[2]

Syria Syrian Arab Republic
 Russia (disputed)
Allied militias:
Liwa al-Quds[3]
Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba[3]
Liwa Fatemiyoun[3]
Ba'ath Brigades[3]

Syrian Democratic Forces (27–28 November)[4]

Fatah Halab (until 1 December)

Jaysh al-Halab[5] (since 1 December)
Commanders and leaders

Maj. Gen. Zaid Saleh[6]
(Head of Aleppo security committee)
Maj. Gen. Suheil al-Hassan[7]
(Tiger Forces chief commander)

Mohammad al-Saeed[8]
(Liwa Al-Quds chief commander)
Col. Mohammad Rafi [9]
(Liwa Al-Quds operations commander)[8]
Samer Rafi[9]
(Liwa Al-Quds field commander)

Abu Abdul Rahman Noor[10][11]
(official leader of Jaysh al-Halab)
Abu Bashir[11][12]
(Jaysh al-Halab commander)
'Umar Al-Hajj [13]
(Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki top commander)
Abu al-Hareth al-Halabi [13]
(Ahrar al-Sham top commander)
Farouq Abu Bakr[14]
(Ahrar al-Sham commander)
(Jaysh al-Islam commander, deserted)
'Aziz Khatoumani [13]
(Karm Al-Jabal Martyrs Battalion commander)

Ahmad Bisan [13]
(Karm Al-Jabal Martyrs Battalion commander)
Units involved

Syrian Armed Forces

Syrian Ministry of Interior

  • Special Forces[3]

Russian Armed Forces (disputed)

Syrian Democratic Forces

Jaysh al-Halab[12]

Jabhat Fatah al-Sham
Jabhat Ansar al-Din
Muntasir Billah Brigade

Karm al-Jabal Martyrs Battalion[13]
25,000[21] 8,000[22]
Casualties and losses

Syria 57–62+ killed[23]

2 killed[24]

232 killed,[25][26] 506–647 captured,[27][28]

2500+ surrendered[15] (pro-government claim)
379–508 civilians killed[29][30]

The Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016), code named as Operation Dawn of Victory by the government forces,[31] is a military offensive launched by the Syrian Armed Forces and allied groups against rebel-held districts in Aleppo. The offensive came after the end of the moratorium on airstrikes by Russia, and the Russian Armed Forces again conducted heavy air and cruise missile strikes against rebel positions throughout northwestern Syria.[31]


On 15 November 2016, a Russian Navy Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate launched Kalibr cruise missiles at rebel positions in the Idlib Governorate, rebel and ISIL targets in the Homs Governorate, and reportedly rebel-held parts of Aleppo itself, which Russia denied. Sukhoi Su-33s from the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov also conducted airstrikes throughout northwestern and western Syria, including rebel-held districts of Aleppo.[32] On the same day, the Syrian Armed Forces and allied militias made "final preparations" of a large-scale offensive into eastern Aleppo.[33]

The offensive

Initial fighting and Army approach to Hanano

The offensive was announced on 15 November, with the start of heavy Russian airstrikes.[34] On 16 November, the Syrian Army supported by Russian airstrikes stormed the Rashidun and Aqrab districts in southwestern Aleppo, but were repelled by the rebels.[35] Amid exchanges of shelling by both sides, clashes renewed in the Jamiat al-Zahra district of western Aleppo.[36]

On 19 November, after heavy bombardment on eastern Aleppo, the Syrian Army attempted to advance in the Sheikh Saeed District in the southeast, but were again repelled by the rebels. Meanwhile, pro-government forces advanced in the northeast.[14] The Army seized the southern and central parts of the Bustan Al-Basha district, leaving them in control of 75 percent of the area.[16][37] In addition, in the evening, after two days of Syrian and Russian airstrikes, the Tiger Forces took control of the strategic Zouhor hill which overlooks the Hanano district and most of rebel-controlled east Aleppo.[38] At the same time, the Army advanced in the southwestern Aleppo district of Aqrab.[39] The Tiger Forces also advanced southwest from the Zouhor hill into the old Sheikh Najjar factories, and seized most of them after intense clashes.[40]

The next day, the Army managed to progress to the entrance of the Hanano district.[41] In the evening, a rebel counter-attack against Zouhor hill and the factories area was launched[42] and eventually repelled.[43] By the end of the day, the Army managed to enter the Hanano district.[44] On 21 November, government advanced in the old Sheikh Najjar factories, the Hanano housings and the nearby Islamic cemetery,[45] while a second Army attack in 48 hours was launched on the southern Sheikh Saeed District.[46] Although the rebels repelled this attack as well, they reportedly suffered heavy casualties.[47]

Capture of Hanano and northeastern rebel collapse

As of 22 November, the military was in control of around a third of Hanano and by the next day half of the district. According to the pro-opposition activist group the SOHR, if the Army managed to seize Hanano, they would be able to cut off the northern part of the rebel-held Aleppo from the rest of the opposition-held districts.[48][49]

On 24 November, the Army pushed deep into the Hanano district, capturing more than half a dozen key buildings.[50] The aim of the advance was to bisect the rebel-held part of Aleppo in two. Heavy and systematic government bombardment inflicted heavy rebel casualties.[51] By the next day, government forces were in control of large parts of Hanano.[52][53] Government forces also took control of large parts of the northeastern 'Ard Al-Hamra and southern Sheikh Lufti districts, as well as the southern Hill 420 (Police Hill).[17][54]

On 26 November, government troops were in control of Hanano,[55][56][57] which was the first district of the city that was taken by the rebels in 2012,[58] and represented about a quarter of the remaining rebel-held part of the city.[59] Government forces also made attempts to advance in the Ard Al-Hamra and Jabal Badro District, south of Hanano.[60] Following the capture of Hanano, 400–600 civilians left the rebel-held part of Aleppo.[61][62]

On 27 November, government forces made major advances[63] after a swift collapse of the rebel defenses,[64] capturing the Jabal-Badro, Ard Al-Hamra and Ba'ibdeen districts,[63][65][66] while also seizing parts of the Sakhour district,[67] namely the Al-Sakhour Bridge.[63] Soon after, the Army took control of the northern Jandoul Factories and secured the Ayn Al-Tal district, as well as large parts of the Hallak Fuqani and Hallak Tahtani districts.[68][69] Due to these advances, the rebels were in a massive retreat,[70][71] also abandoning the Bustan Al-Basha district and parts of Haydariyah, and withdrawing to southern Aleppo through the Sakhour district, which if captured would split the rebel-held part of the city in two.[70][72] At this point, less than a kilometer was separating government troops advancing in east Aleppo from those in the center of the city.[64]

The collapse of the rebel frontlines was attributed to the heavy volume of bombardments, the intensity of the fighting, the number of dead and wounded, and the lack of hospitals.[25] Hundreds of civilians attempted to capitalize on the rebel collapse,[73] with the number of evacuated civilians increasing to nearly 10,000 during the day.[74]

In the evening, only 500 meters were separating the military from closing off the gap between the northeastern and the southeastern parts of the city. By this point, the remaining distance had already come under Army fire control.[75] In addition, the Army completed its control of Hallak Al-Fukani, Hallak Al-Tahtani and Bustan Al-Basha, with Kurdish support, while the northeastern Inzarat district had also been seized.[68][76][77] At least 36 rebels surrendered to the Army during their advances,[78] while a number of them had reportedly defected to the Kurdish-led SDF.[79]

As of 28 November, the entire northeastern part of Aleppo had fallen.[4] Early in the day, the Army took control of Haydariyah.[4][80] Two hours later, government forces also seized Sakhour,[4][81][82] leaving the rebel-held districts of Sheikh Kheder and Sheikh Fares surrounded.[83] Soon after, Sheikh Khider was also taken by the Army, along with parts of Sheikh Fares. The rest of Sheikh Fares was seized by Kurdish forces, who were confirmed to be in control of parts of Hallak, Bustan Al-Basha,[4] Ba'ibdeen and Ayn Al-Tal as well[84] after advancing from the northern Kurdish-controlled Sheikh Maqsood district. The overall situation was described to be "the biggest defeat for the opposition in Aleppo since 2012",[82] with a four-year stalemate in the city being broken.[85]

On 4 December, Reuters reported that residents were returning to Hanano.[86]

Army push into the southeast

Following the rebel collapse in the northeast, the Army made its first advance into the southeastern Tariq al-Bab (al-Helwania) district.[87] On 28 November, they captured the Talet Barakat and Scientific Research Housing areas, south of Jabal Badro,[88][89] and advanced into the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing.[90]

On 29 November, the Army seized large parts of the southeastern al-Jazmati and al-Ma’saraniyah neighborhoods, in order to secure the Aleppo International Airport and its highway.[91][92] The next day, the Army and pro-government Iraqi militias seized most of the Sheikh Saeed district in the southern part of the city.[93][94][95][96] After this, they captured several building blocks in the exposed side of the Sukkari district.[97] During these advances, the Army also cleared the Sadkop and Old Ramouseh areas, south of Sheikh Saeed.[98] Government forces also again advanced in the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing area,[99] and reportedly capturing it.[93] On 1 December, the rebels were able to regain almost all of Sheikh Saeed district in a counter-attack. Government troops managed to retain control of the southern section of the district.[98] They also recaptured some positions in the Ma'saraniyah Youth housing area.[100]

As of 2 December, fighting continued in Sheikh Saeed,[101] with the Army in control of 30% of the district.[102] During the day, they once again advanced in the area.[103] Meanwhile, the Army launched a major assault in the southeastern neighborhoods of Aleppo, capturing two districts,[104] Tariq al-Bab[1] and Karm al-Trab.[105][106] They also took control of a large part of the al-Jazmati district.[107][108] With these advances, government forces secured the airport road[1] and were in control of 60% of the previously rebel-held part of Aleppo.[1] Overall, the Army pushed one kilometer into rebel territory in the city.[109] Around 1 a.m., during the day's clashes, a Syrian Air Force Aero L-39 Albatros was shot down by rebel fire and crashed in the central part of the city, with both pilots killed.[110]

On 3 December, government forces completed their control of al-Jazmati and made a push into Mayssar.[111][112] The next day, the Army made advances in the Mayssar district,[113] after capturing the al-Helwaniyah and al-Jazmati roundabouts.[114] At this point, two kilometers were separating the advancing Army units from the government-held Citadel of Aleppo.[115] Later in the day, government troops captured Mayssar, as well as the Dahret Awwad district.[116][117] They had also reportedly took several positions in the al-Qaterrji and al-Sha'ar neighborhoods.[118]


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Syria army seizes new rebel district in Aleppo — monitor". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  2. More than 50,000 fled eastern Aleppo in 4 days
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Chris Tomson (25 November 2016). "Syrian Army goes all in on Aleppo as more reinforcements pour into the city – Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 مدينة حلب تشهد خروج كامل القسم الشمالي من أحياء حلب الشرقية عن سيطرة الفصائل
  5. "Besieged Aleppo rebels unite under new Jaish Halab banner". Al-Masdar News. 1 December 2016.
  6. Szakola, Albin (22 September 2016). "Aleppo will be secured "very soon": regime figure". NOW. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  7. Leith Fadel (29 October 2016). "Prominent Syrian Army commander arrives in Aleppo". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  8. 1 2 "Russian influence evident in Palestinian militia in Syria - FDD's Long War Journal". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  9. 1 2 Chris Tomson (28 November 2016). "Senior Palestinian paramilitary commander killed by rebel forces in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  10. سرکرده گروهک «ارتش حلب» در درگیری‌های امروز این شهر زخمی شد
  11. 1 2 "Aleppo factions disband and form an army uniform". Al-Jazeera. 1 December 2016.
  12. 1 2 "Commander of the "leadership of Aleppo" to Qassioun: New Ckellna includes all factions in the city". Qasioun. 14 November 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fadel, Leith (23 November 2016). "Four high-ranking jihadist commanders killed in Aleppo". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  14. 1 2 "Battle for Aleppo escalates, U.N. sees 'bleak moment'". Reuters. 18 November 2016.
  15. 1 2 3 Zen Adra (4 December 2016). "Rebel forces in Aleppo arrest militants willing to surrender". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  16. 1 2 3 "Syrian Army advances deep inside Bustan Al-Basha District of east Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  17. 1 2 Fadel, Leith (25 November 2016). "Syrian Army advancing at several axes in east Aleppo: map". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  18. Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (23 May 2016). "The Local Defence Forces: Regime Auxiliary Forces in Aleppo". Syria Comment.
  19. Chris Tomson (28 November 2016). "VIDEO: Syrian Army closes in on last rebel-held districts in Aleppo city – Map update". al-Masdar News.
  20. "Thomas van Linge on Twitter".
  21. "The Inside Source on Twitter".
  22. "The Latest: Syrian gov't: rebel shelling of Aleppo kills 8".
  23. 2 killed (16 Nov.), 3 killed (19 Nov.), 3 killed (21 Nov.), 3 killed (21 Nov.), 4–9 killed (22 Nov.), 4 killed (25 Nov.), 3 killed (23 Nov.), 4 killed (24 Nov.), 5 killed (26 Nov.), 4 killed (27 Nov.), 3 killed (28 Nov.), 4 killed (29 Nov.), 3 killed (30 Nov.), 2 killed (1 Dec.), 3 killed (2 Dec.), 7 killed (3 Dec.), total of 57–62 reported killed
  24. شهداء وجرحى في قصف متجدد على حلب الشرقية وسقوط قذائف على مناطق في حي الشيخ مقصود
  25. 1 2 "Syrian army captures part of rebel-held east Aleppo". Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  26. "The Inside Source on Twitter".
  27. Adra, Zen (30 November 2016). "Field Report: Syrian Army storms key rebel-held district in southern Aleppo. Map Update".
  28. "Russia 'ready for talks' on rebel withdrawal in Aleppo". 3 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  29. "Syrian regime takes 5 opposition-held areas in Aleppo". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  30. 1 2 "Syria: Russia starts large-scale offensive against jihadist militias". 15 November 2016.
  31. "Syria conflict: Air strikes resume on rebel-held Aleppo". BBC. 16 November 2016.
  32. "Final preparations made for largest Syrian Army offensive in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 16 November 2016.
  33. Graham-Harrison, Emma (15 November 2016). "Aleppo airstrikes restart as Russia announces major Syria offensive". Retrieved 23 November 2016 via The Guardian.
  34. "Syrian Army attacks important suburb in southwest Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 16 November 2016.
  35. "Regime forces shell several areas in Aleppo city and its countryside and shells target the western neighborhoods of Aleppo". Syria HR. 17 November 2016.
  36. "The Inside Source on Twitter". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  37. "Syrian Army captures all important hill in eastern Aleppo – Map update". Al-Masdar News. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  38. Regime forces advance in areas at the outskirts of Aleppo
  39. "Syrian Army seizes factories near newly captured hill in eastern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  40. 19 casualties at least in the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo due to heavy shelling and regime forces advance to entrances of Masaken Hanano
  41. Adra, Zen (20 November 2016). "Aleppo Update: jihadi groups launch counteroffensive as battles intensify". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  42. Fadel, Leith (21 November 2016). "Syrian Army foils Islamist counter-offensive in east Aleppo: map". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  43. PCL., Post Publishing. "Bangkok Post article". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  44. Clashes continue on several fronts of Aleppo
  45. Fadel, Leith (21 November 2016). "Syrian Army renews offensive in southern Aleppo". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  46. Adra, Zen (22 November 2016). "Jihadi groups lose more fighters in southern Aleppo while foiling Army attack". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  47. "Civilians fleeing east Aleppo turned back by gunfire - The National". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  48. "Civilians flee as Syria regime advances in rebel Aleppo". Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  49. Tomson, Chris (24 November 2016). "Syrian Army makes huge gains inside rebel heartland of Aleppo city – Map update". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  50. "Syrian forces aim to split east Aleppo in two: rebel commander". 25 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016 via Reuters.
  51. بعد تقدمها في مساكن هنانو ومحاور أخرى…قوات النظام تواصل محاولات تحقيق مزيد من التقدم في شرق حلب
  52. "The Inside Source on Twitter". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  53. Violent clashes in Shekh Lutfi in Aleppo
  54. "Syrian troops capture east Aleppo neighborhood from rebels". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  55. Tomson, Chris (26 November 2016). "Syrian Army fully captures Hanano district in eastern Aleppo - Map update". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  56. Regime forces takes control on Hanano housings neighborhood
  57. "Syria war: Army makes rapid gains in rebel-held east Aleppo". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016 via
  58. 50 قتيلا بحلب والنظام يتحدث عن التقدم شرقها
  59. Fadel, Leith (26 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures most of key east Aleppo district". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  60. Barrington, Lisa (27 November 2016). "Hundreds displaced in east Aleppo as Syrian army advances". Retrieved 28 November 2016 via Christian Science Monitor.
  61. Tomson, Chris (26 November 2016). "600 civilians exit rebel-held Aleppo in one day". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  62. 1 2 3 Yakovlev, Ivan (27 November 2016). "Breaking: Major advance of Syrian Army and allies in Aleppo city". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  63. 1 2 "Syrian army Aleppo advance displaces thousands". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  64. Syria regime takes two more rebel districts in Aleppo
  65. After 13 days of massive bloody bombing, regime forces are about 1km from cutting the eastern neighborhoods to havles
  66. "Syria Daily: Pro-Assad Forces Advancing in Eastern Aleppo City - EA WorldView". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  67. 1 2 "Syria forces retake 6 Aleppo rebel areas, civilians flee". AFP. 28 November 2016.
  68. Charkatli, Izat (27 November 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army advances as jihadists mass retreat from east Aleppo districts". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  69. 1 2 Charkatli, Izat (27 November 2016). "Rebels in mass retreat in east Aleppo as Syrian Army captures new district". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  70. editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (27 November 2016). "Syrian rebels' resistance 'waning' as thousands of people flee Aleppo". Retrieved 28 November 2016 via The Guardian.
  71. معارك عنيفة تشهدها محاور في مدينة حلب وقوات النظام تتمكن من التقدم في عدة محاور
  72. "The Inside Source on Twitter". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  73. "Nearly 10,000 civilians flee east Aleppo: monitor". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  74. “”بالصوت والصورة” وصول آلاف النازحين إلى حي الشيخ مقصود وقوات النظام تقسم نارياً أحياء حلب الشرقية إلى قسمين جنوبي وشمالي
  75. Charkatli, Izat (27 November 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army, Kurds continue steamrolling in east Aleppo as rebels mass retreat". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  76. 10 killed in the 13th day of bombardment on Aleppo
  77. "The Inside Source on Twitter". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  78. "Hassan Ridha on Twitter". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  79. Fadel, Leith (28 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures strategic east Aleppo neighborhood". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  80. Fadel, Leith (28 November 2016). "Syrian Army keeps rolling in east Aleppo as Sakour District declared under government control". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  81. 1 2 "Syrian army seizes key Aleppo area from rebels: Observatory". 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  82. "BREAKING: Northern Aleppo Fell into Hands of the Syrian Army". 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  83. "ANALYSIS: The Kurdish 'frenemies' aiding Assad in Aleppo".
  84. Abdulrahim, Raja (28 November 2016). "Syria Seizes Parts of Aleppo From Rebels" via Wall Street Journal.
  85. Tom Perry (4 December 2016). "Rebels tell U.S. they won't leave Aleppo; army sees operation over in weeks". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  86. Aerial bombardment targets eastern Aleppo and continued clashes in the city
  87. "Syrian Army Liberate Talat al Barakat Area in Northeastern Aleppo". 28 November 2016.
  88. "The Inside Source on Twitter".
  89. The regime forces advance again in Aleppo and seek to secure Aleppo International Airport and its highway
  90. "Thousands flee as Syrian army pushes into east Aleppo".
  91. 1 2 Fadel, Leith (30 November 2016). "Syrian Army captures important site after resuming east Aleppo offensive".
  92. The regime forces advance in the southern part of the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo and control large parts of Sheikh Saeed
  93. "Aleppo rebels vow no surrender as bombardments by regime, allies kill scores of more civilians". 1 December 2016 via Japan Times Online.
  94. "The Inside Source on Twitter".
  95. 1 2 Charkatli, Izat (1 December 2016). "Syrian Army, allied militias withdraw from Sheikh Sa'eed".
  96. اشتباكات عنيفة في مدينة حلب مع تقدم لقوات النظام في شرق أحياء المدينة الشرقية وقصف على الريف الجنوبي
  97. Rebels advance over regime forces in the youth housings and Shekh Saed in Aleppo
  98. Continued clashes in Aleppo and rebels taking control on 70% of Shekh Said
  99. "Russia not serious in talks with Syrian rebels: opposition official". 2 December 2016 via Reuters.
  100. "The Inside Source on Twitter".
  101. "Half of rebel-held Aleppo 'falls to Syrian regime'".
  102. Renewed airstrikes on Aleppo city and its countryside leave casualties and new advancement for the regime forces in Aleppo
  103. "The Inside Source on Twitter". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  104. Charkatli, Izat (2 December 2016). "Map Update: Syrian Army strikes at the heart of east Aleppo".
  105. 9 casualties in Aleppo city and violent clashes continued in several areas in the central and eastern part of the city
  106. "Syrian and allied troops advance in besieged Aleppo". 3 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  107. Tomson, Chris (3 December 2016). "Two Syrian pilots killed as rebels shoot down jet over eastern Aleppo". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  108. Fadel, Leith (3 December 2016). "Aleppo International Airport officially safe after Syrian Army advance: map". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  109. Continued clashes between regime forces and rebels and advances for the regime in Aleppo
  110. النظام يتجه لتقسيم المقسم ويسعى للفصل بين وسط وجنوب أحياء حلب الشرقية وإيصال قواته بممر جديد إلى قلعة حلب
  111. "Hassan Ridha on Twitter". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  112. "Hassan Ridha on Twitter". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  113. "The Inside Source on Twitter". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  114. قوات النظام تجدد تقدمها في القسم الأوسط من حلب الشرقية وقصف مستمر يخلف مزيداً من الخسائر البشرية
  115. "Hassan Ridha on Twitter". Retrieved 4 December 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.