Timeline of Jainism

Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the most possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism.

Before common era (BCE)

Common era (CE)

Sculpture depicting Acharya Kundkund

Middle Ages

British India


See also


  1. "NamiNatha Bhagwan". http://jainmuseum.com. External link in |website= (help)
  2. "About Tonks Of 24 Jain Tirthankaras On Parasnath Hills Information-Topchanchi". http://www.hoparoundindia.com. External link in |website= (help)
  3. Zimmer 1953, p. 226.
  4. Jinasena, Acharya; Jain (Sahityacharya), Dr. Pannalal (2008). Harivamsapurana [Harivamsapurana]. Bhartiya Jnanpith (18, Institutional Area, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110003). ISBN 978-81-263-1548-2.
  5. Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-148-2. p. 115
  6. "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
  7. Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
  8. Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 59–60.
  9. "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
  10. Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII.
  11. Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English
  12. Cort 2009, p. 39-41.
  13. 1 2 Kerkar & TNN 2014.
  14. Government notification- minority


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